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tendon a cordlike, nonelastic, white fibrous band of connective tissue
fascia a thin connective tissue that joins with the tendon.
bursa a thin sac of synovial membrane filled with synovial fluid, acts as a cushion to reduce friction where a tendon rubs against the bone in a joint
neuromuscular junction where each muscle fiber is connected to a single nerve cell
neurotransmitter a nerve that produces a message to send through the body
orgin beginning of a muscle is where its tendon is attached to a stationary or nearly stationary bone
insertion ending of a muscle is where its tendon is attached to a bone that moves when the muscle contracts and relaxes.
acetylcholine a neurotransmitter released at autonomic synapses and neuromuscular junctions and formed enzymatically in the tissues from choline
skeletal provide the means by which the body can move
striated have multiple nuclei
voluntary contract and relax in response to conscious thought
cardiac pumps blood through the circulatory system; invlountary muscle that is not under conscious control
smooth involuntary, nonstriated muscles; form a continuous, thin layer around many organs and structures
flexion bending a joint to decrease the angle between two bones or two body parts
extension straightening and extending a joint to increase the angle between two bones or two body parts
abduction moving a body part away from the midline of the body
rotation moving a body part toward the midline of the body
supination turning the palm of the hand anteriorly or upward
pronation turning the palm of the hand posteriorly or downward
eversion turning a body part outward and toward the side
inversion turning a body part inward
frontalis moves the eyebrows or wrinkles the forehead skin
temporalis moves the mandible (lower jaw) upward and backward
orbicularis pertaining to a small circle
masseter moves the mandible (lower jaw) upward
buncination moves the cheek
sternocleidomastoid bends the head toward the sternum (flexion) and turns the head to either side (rotation)
deltoid raises the arm and moves the arm away from the body (abduction)
pectoralis major moves the arm anteriorly and medially across the chest (adduction)
intercostal pertaining to between the ribs
trapezius raises the shoulder, pulls the shoulder blades together, elevats the clavicle
latissimus dorsi moves the arm posteriorly and medially toward the vertbral column (adduction)
biceps brachii bend the upper arm toward the shoulder (flexion) and bends the lower arm toward the upper arm (flexion)
triceps brachii straightens the lower arm (extension)
brachioraialis bends the lower arm toward the upper arm (flexion)
external and internal pertaining to the outside and inside
oblique having a slanting direction or position; neither perpendicular nor parallel
rectus abdominis bends the upper body forward (flexion) and compresses the anterior abdominal wall
rectus femoris bends the upper leg toward the abdomen (flexion); straightens the lower leg (extenstion)
sartorius bends the upper leg toward the abdomen (flexion) and rotates it laterally
vastus lateralis bends the upper leg toward the abdomen (flexion)
vastus medialis staightens the lower leg (extension)
peroneal longus raises the lateral edge of the foot (eversion) and bends the foot downward (plantar flexion)
tibialis anterior bends the foot up toward the leg (dorsiflexion)
gluteus maximus moves the upper leg posteriorly (extension) and rotates it laterally
gastrocenemius bends the foot downward (plantar flexion) and lets you stand on tiptoe
biceps femoris moves the upper leg posteriorly (extension) and bends the lower leg toward the buttocks (flexion)
hamstrings moves the upper leg posteriorly (extension) and bends the lower leg toward the buttocks (flexion)
atrophy partial or complete wasting away of a muscle
avulsion the action to tear away from
contracture system to pull together
fibromyalgia the condition of pain in the muscle fiber
hyperextension the action of straightening above
hyperflexion the action of bending above
contusion the action of bruising
muscluar dystrophy painful process of development in the muscle
myasthenia gravis condition of lack of strength in the muscles
myopathy muscle disease
polymyositis inflammation of many muscles
dermatomyositis inflammation of the muscle skin
rhabdomyosarcoma rod shaped tumor in the muscle and connective tissue
toricollis a condition in which the neck is twisted and the head inclined to one side, caused by spasmodic contraction of the muscles of the neck.
rotator cuff tear tear in the rotator muscles of the shoulder that surround the head of the humerus
ataxia incoordination of the muscles during movement, particularly incoordination of the gait
bradykinesia abnormally slow muscle movements or a decrease in the numer of spontaneous musle movements
dyskinesia abnormal motions that occur because of difficulty controlling the voluntary muscles
myoclonus muscle spasms or jerks
restless legs syndrome an uncomfortable restlessness and twitching of the muscles of the legs, particularly the calf muscles, along with an indescribable tinglng, aching, or crawling-insect sensation
hyperkinesis an abnormally increased amount of muscle movements
tremor small, involunatry, sometimes jerky, back and forth movements of the hands, head, jaw, or extremities
bursitis inflammation of the bursal sac because of repetitive muscle contractions or pressure on the bone underneath the bursa
tendonitis inflammation of any tendon from injury or overuse
tenosynovitis inflammation and pain due to overuse of a tendon and inability of the synovium to produce enough lubricating fluid
ganglion semisolid or fluid-containing cyst that develops on a tendon, often in the wrist, hand, or foot
lateral epicondylitis also known as tennis elbow; inflammation and pain of the extensor and supinator muscles where their tendons orginate on the laterl epicondyle of the humerus
acetylcholine receptor antibody test test that detects antibodies that the body produces against its acetylcholine receptors
electromyograph procedure to diagnose muscle disease or nerve damage
creatine phosphokinase test that measures the level of serum CPK-MN, an isoenzyme found in the muscles
fasciectomy procedure to partially or totally remove the fascia that is causing dupuytren's contracture
fasciotomy procedure to cut the fascia and release the pressure from built-up blood and tissue fluid in a patient with compartment syndrome
ganglionectomy procedure to remove a ganglion from a tendon
myorrhaphy procedure to suture together a torn muscle after an injury
tenorrhaphy procedure to suture together a torn tendon after an injury
thymectomy procedure to remove the thymus gland
trigger point injection procedure to treat fibroyalgia
analgesic over-the-counterdrugs aspirin and acetaminophen decrease mild-to-moderate inflammation and pain
beta-blocker block the action of epinephrine to suppress essential familial tremor
dopamine stimulant stimulate dopamine receptors to treat restless legs syndrome
muscle relaxant relieve muscle spasm and stiffness
ADA Americans with Disabilities Act
ADLs activities of daily living
D.C. Doctor of Chiropracty
DTRs deep tendon reflexes
EMG electromyography
IM intramuscular
LLE left lower extremity
LUE left upper extremity
MD muscular dystrophy
OOB out of bed
orth orthopedics
OSHA Occupation Safety and Health Administration
OT occupational therapy
PT physical therapy
RICE rest, ice, compression, and elevation
RLE right lower extremity
ROM range of motion
RUE right upper extremity
RSI repetitive strain injury
Created by: Beckster_Bug