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Chapter 10 Part 1

Agriculture and Rural Land Use

TermDefinition
Primary Economic Activities activities where natural resources are extracted from the earth. Mining, farming, fishing
Extensive vs Intensive Agriculture Extensive:agricultural production system that uses small inputs of labor fertilizers and capital relative to the land area being farmed Intensive:agricultural production system characterized by a low fallow ratio and the high use of inputs such as capita
The Boserup Hypothesis agricultural methods depend on the size of the population. The larger the world population grows, the more innovations are made to make feeding the expanding population possible
Commercial Agriculture the production of food primarily for sale off the farm. Found in more developed countries.
Agriculture deliberate modification of Earth's surface through cultivation of plants and rearing of animals to obtain sustenance or economic gain
Capital-Intensive vs Labor-intensive Agriculture Capital:agriculture that uses mechanical goods such as machinery, tools, vehicles and facilities to produce large amounts of agricultural goods; requiring very little human labor Labor:agriculture requires large levels of manual labor to succeed
Industrial Revolution's Effect on Agriculture Traditional agriculture is lessened because of new machines made to process food. Agricultural jobs are less prominent
Commercial Livestock Production extensive commercial agricultural activity that involves the raising of livestock over vast geographic space typically located in semi-arid climates like the American West
Origins of Agriculture people started domesticating animals and gathered for food supply
Intensive Subsistence Farming a form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expand a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land
The Green Revolution the development of higher-yield and fast-growing crops through increased technology, pesticides, and fertilizers transferred from the developed to developing world to alleviate the problem of food supply in those regions of the globe
Commercial Grain Farming mass planting and harvesting of grain crops, such as wheat, barley, and millet
Hunting and Gathering the killing of wild animals and fish as well as the gathering of fruits, nuts, and other plants for sustenance
Extensive Subsistence Farming both shifting cultivation and pastoral nomad-ism. They involve large areas of land and minimal labor per land unit. Both product per land unit and population densities are low
Negative Impacts of Green Revolution degradation of land, weeds are increased, chemicals in the water, pest infestation gone up
Tropical Plantations grow crops such as coffee or sugarcane. Widespread through tropics in Africa, Asia, Caribbean, and Central and South America. Many crops are not native to plantations and are almost always exported to other countries rather than consumed locally
Fertile Crescent Crescent-shaped area of fertile land stretching from the lower Nile valley, along the east Mediterranean coast, and into Syria and present-day Iraq where agriculture and early civilization first began about 8000 BC
Transhumance a pattern of regular seasonal movement by human groups. It can be seen as a form of pastoralism or nomadism. Livestock is moved seasonally between one area of pasture and another
Maladaptive Diffusion diffusion of a process with negative side effects or what works well in one region may not in another
Mixed and Specialty Crop Farming truck farms/market gardens produce mixed and specialty crops.TF involves large-scale production of fruits or vegetables for sale in regions where product isn't grown.MG involves small-scale growing of fruits or vegetables for sale at local markets
Created by: leahrahman