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Chapter 5

The Human Body: An Orientation

abdominal cavity located in the ventral cavity, holds the organs of the digestive and urinary system
anterior or venteral front side of the body
blood system includes blood and all its components
body cavity spaces that hold organs
cardiovascular system includes the heart and blood vessels, which pump and transport blood throughout the body, carry nutrients to and removing wast from tissues
cell smallest element in the body, entire body is made up of cells
connective tissue fibrous substance that hold and connects body parts together (bones, ligaments, and tendons)
coronal plane (frontal) line that divides the body into anterior and posterior positions
cranial cavity located in the dorsal cavity, holds the brain
deep through or away from the surface
diaphragm muscle that seperates the thoracic and abdominal cavity
digestive system consists of the organs that digest and excrete waste
distal away from the point of attachment (distal end of thighbone forms the knee)
dorsal cavity located on the back side of body
endocrine system system that includes the glands that secrete the hormones that regulate many of the body's activities
epigastric region area above the stomach
epithelial tissue covers the internal and external surfaces. (skin, intestines)
hypochondriac regions the two regions just below the cartilage of the ribs, immediately over the abdomen
hypogastric region area just below the umbilical region
iliac or inguinal regions are the two regions near the upper portion of the hip bone
inferior below another structure
integumentary system consists of the skin and the accessory structures (hair, nails, sweat and oil glands)
left lower quadrant (LLQ) abdominal area that contains parts of the intestines and parts of reproductive organs in females
left upper quadrant (LUQ) area of the abdomen that contains the stomach, spleen, and parts of the liver, pancreas, and intestines
lumbar regions the left and right regions of the body in the back and sides between the lowest ribs and the pelvis
lymphatic and immune system include the lymph, the glands and vessels of the lymphatic system, and the nonspecific and specific defenses of the immune system
medial middle (as the nose is to the eyes)
midsagittal plane imaginary line that divides the body into equal left and right halves
muscle tissue able to contract and expand, allowing the body to move
musculoskeletal system supports the body, protects the organs, provides movement, and includes muscles, bones, and cartilage.
nervous system regulates most body activities and sends and receives messages from the sensory organs
nervous tissue carries messages to and from the brain and spinal cord from all parts of the body
organ groups of tissue that work together to perform a specific function
posterior or dorsal back side of the body
pelvic cavity bottom portion of the abdominal cavity, contains the reproductive system
prone lying on their abdomen with their faces down
proximal near the point of attachment to the trunk (the proximal end of the thighbone joints the hip bone)
reproductive system system that controls reproduction and heredity and is either male or female
respiratory system includes the lungs and airways, and performs breathing
right lower quadrant (RLQ) abdominal area that contains the appendix, parts of the intestines, and parts of the reproductive organs in females
right upper quadrant (RUQ) area of the abdomen that contains parts of the liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and intestinal tract
sagittal or lateral plane is parallel to the medial plane and divides the body into left and right sections
sensory system covers the eyes and ears and those parts of other systems that are involved in the reactions of the five senses
spinal cavity located in the dorsal cavity, holds the spinal cord
superficial at or near the surface
superior above another structure
supine lying on spine, facing upward
system groups of organs that work together to perform one of the body's functions
thoracic cavity located in the ventral cavity, holds the heart, lungs, and major blood vessels
tissue a group of cells that work together to perform a single function (body has 4 types of tissue)
transverse plane (cross-sectional) imaginary line that intersects the body horizontally and divides the body into upper and lower sections
umbilical region area surrounding the navel
urinary system eliminates metabolic waste, helps to maintain acid-base and water-salt balance, helps regulate blood pressure (kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra)
ventral cavity located on the front side of body
lateral to the side (as the eyes are to the nose)
Created by: BrandiAnderson94