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All of Africa

Desertification the process in which grasslands turn into deserts
Deforestation the destruction of trees and rainforests
Sahel the transition zone between the Sahara desert and the rainforests
Savanna grasslands
Sahara the largest desert in the world; located in Northern Africa
Where do most people live in Africa? Near rivers and along the coasts
Which areas in the Sahara have high population densities? Along the Nile River and near oases
Where are rainforests located in Africa? in Central Africa along the Congo River
Which environmental issue is negatively impacting the rainforests? deforestation
What type of job do people in the rainforest have? logging
Where is the Sahel located in Africa? south of the Sahara and north of the rainforests
Which environmental issue is negatively impacting the Sahel? desertification
What types of jobs do people have in the Sahel? subsistence farming and herding animals
Subsistence farming when farmers only grow enough food for their families to survive
What is the relationship between literacy rate and standard of living? The higher the literacy rate, the higher the standard of living
What is the difference between ethnic groups and religious groups? Ethnic groups share a common culture, traditions, history, and language. Religious groups share a common religion.
Where do Arabs live in Africa? In the northern and eastern parts of Africa
Which religion do most Arabs practice? Islam
Where do the Ashanti live in Africa? Ghana
Which religions to the Ashanti practice? traditional religions, Islam, and Christianity
Where do the Swahili live in Africa? East Africa
Which religion do most Swahili practice? Islam
Describe the Bantu people. The Bantu people migrated from the Sahara desert throughout central and southern Africa. Many people in Africa can trace their language and cultures to the Bantu.
What are the two most common religions in Africa? Christianity and Islam
What are "water wars"? Disagreements between countries about how to share the limited fresh water resources
Why are "water wars" becoming a reality in Africa? The amount of clean fresh water is shrinking, while the population in Africa is continuing to grow.
What are the causes of desertification? overgrazing, drought, poor farming practices, and deforestation
How is desertification negatively impacting the people in Africa? Farmers are unable to use their land once it becomes a desert which leads to poverty and starvation.
How does polluted water impact people in Africa? It is difficult for people to find clean water to drink and use in Africa. Drinking polluted water can lead to sickness and even death.
Autocracy One person has total power
Oligarchy A small group of people rule
Democracy Citizens have the right to vote for their leaders
Presidential Democracy Citizens vote for president; the president is both the head of state and head of government
Parliamentary Democracy Citizens elect members to parliament, members of parliament select the prime minister; the prime minister is the head of government
Unitary The central government has control
Confederation Independent countries have the power and agree to give a little to the central government
Federal Power is divided between federal, regional, and local governments
Dictatorship One person rules by force, often relying on the military
3 Types of Citizen Participation Democracy, Oligarchy, Autocracy
3 Types of Distribution of Power Unitary, Federal, Confederation
GDP Gross Domestic Product; the total value of goods and services produced in a country in a year
Entrepreneurship A person willing to risk their time and money in a new product or improved product
Human Capital The value of a person's skills and education
Capital Goods Goods used to make other goods
Natural Resources Gifts from the Earth
Specialization When countries focus on producing what they can produce easily and trade for what they need
Interdependence When countries rely on each other for goods and services; usually a result of specialization
Market Economy Supply and demand determine what is produced, how much is produced, and for whom it is produced
Command Economy The government determines what is produced, how much is produced, and for whom it is produced.
Traditional Economy Traditions and customs determine what is produced, how much is produced, and for whom it is produced.
Mixed Economy A combination of government and supply and demand control economic decisions
Export Goods that are sent out of the country to another
Import Goods that are brought into a country from another
Quota A limit on imports
Tariff A tax on imports
Embargo A refusal to trade with a country
The higher the literacy rate.... the higher the standard of living
What type of government does Kenya have? Republic and presidential democracy
What type of government does South Africa have? Republic and parliamentary democracy
Why has it been hard to create stable governments in Africa? Civil war and conflict between ethnic and religious groups
What is famine? What causes it? A period of time when there is a shortage of food caused by civil war, climate change, disease
Which region of Africa is most at risk for famine? Sub-Saharan Africa
Which trade barrier did the US place on South Africa in response to apartheid? embargo
What are the 4 factors of growth? human capital, capital goods, natural resources, entrepreneurship
What are the 3 economic trade barriers? quota, embargo, and tariff
How are standard of living and GDP related? the higher the GDP, the higher the standard of living
Poverty not having enough money to buy basic supplies
What are the benefits of free (voluntary) trade? increased variety; lower priced goods because of competition; companies make more money
What are the most valuable natural resources found in Africa? (4) Oil, diamonds, uranium, and gold
What is Nigeria's most valuable natural resource? Oil
What are South Africa's most valuable natural resources? Diamonds, Gold, and Uranium
How are the Republic of Kenya and the Republic of South Africa different? Kenya is a presidential democracy, while South Africa is a parliamentary democracy.
How are the educational systems in Kenya similar and different? Boys in both countries go to school more frequently than girls. Kenya has a higher literacy rate. Sudan has been hurt by civil war.
Why did South Sudan want to become independent from Sudan? South Sudan is culturally and religiously different from Sudan. South Sudan is mainly Christian, while Sudan is mainly Muslim.
How has investment in the four factors of growth impacted the economies of South Africa and Nigeria? South Africa has invested in all four factors of growth and their economy is steadily growing. Nigeria has only invested in natural resources, so their economy is not growing very much.
Between South Africa and Nigeria, which country has a faster growing economy? Why? South Africa because they invest in the four factors of economic growth.
What is malaria? How is it spread? Tropical disease spread by mosquitos
What 3 things can be done to reduce the spread of malaria? Insecticides, anti-malarial drugs, and mosquito nets
Why is it hard to combat AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa? Lack of funding for education and prevention programs; government instability
Define imperialism. when one country takes over another, usually for resources
Define nationalism. love for one's country
Define apartheid. the forced segregation between races in South Africa
Define homelands. areas where black South Africans were forced to live during Apartheid
Define African National Congress. Nelson Mandela's political party that opposed Apartheid
Define partition. to divide
Define Scramble for Africa. the race between European countries to gain colonies in Africa
Define Pan-Africanism. the idea that people of African descent share a common history and culture and should come to
Who is Nelson Mandela? Mandela opposed apartheid and was imprisoned for 27 years. He was the first black president of South Africa.
Who was Jomo Kenyatta? The first elected president of Kenya after independence
Who was F. W. de Klerk? The last president of South Africa under apartheid; worked to end apartheid and released Nelson Mandela from jail.
What problem has oil caused in Nigeria? government corruption
When did most countries in Africa gain independence? 1950s and 1960s
Why was there a civil war in Nigeria? There was a civil war over government control between the Christian south and the Muslim north
How did Kenya gain independence? voting
How did South Africa gain independence? voting
When was Africa divided into colonies? At which conference did that happen? Berlin Conference 1884-1885
Why has it been hard to build stable governments in Africa since independence? European partitioning divided ethnic groups into difficult countries and placed rival ethnic groups in the same country.
Which 2 European countries had the most colonies in Africa? UK (British) and France (French)
How did the colonial borders drawn by Europeans cause problems for the countries in Africa after independence? European partitioning divided ethnic groups into difficult countries and placed rival ethnic groups in the same country.
Which 2 European countries colonized South Africa? Netherlands (Dutch) and UK (British)
Why did France and Britain both want to control Egypt? To control the Suez Canal
Why did Europeans create colonies in Africa? To gain natural resources (raw materials), gain more land, slave trade, new markets in which to sell their goods, spread their culture and religion
Explain how Nelson Mandela and F.W. de Klerk are important figures in South African history. Nelson Mandela was the leader of the African National Congress political party and opposed Apartheid. He was the first black president of South Africa. de Klerk was the last president of South Africa during Apartheid and worked to end Apartheid.
What problems did European colonizers create when they drew political boundaries in the region? Civil war; riots; separated families and ethnic groups into different countries; unstable governments
Created by: MsBentley