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endocrine system

Anatomy & Physiology

endocrine system regulates and controls metabolic processes, helps maintain body homeostasis (i.e. maintaining blood glucose levels during erratic food intake), and serves as one of the two major control systems of the body (with the nervous system)
endocrine system composition endocrine glands located throughout the body (i.e. synthesize and secrete hormones that are released into the blood and transported through the body)
target cells of the endocrine system cells with a specific receptor for a hormone, bind hormone (initiates and inhibits selective cell activities)
functions of the endocrine system maintaining homeostasis of blood composition and volume, controlling reproductive activities, regulating development, growth, and metabolism, and controlling digestive processes
maintaining homeostasis of blood composition and volume regulate amount of substances dissolved in blood and regulate blood volume, cellular concentration, and platelet number
controlling reproductive activities affect development and function
regulating development, growth, and metabolism regulatory roles in embryonic cell division and differentiation and involved in catabolism and anabolism of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids
controlling digestive processes influence secretory processes and influence movement through digestive tract
endocrine organs are... scattered throughout the body
types of endocrine organs pure endocrine organs and organs that contain endocrine cells
pure endocrine organs pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal glands
organs containing endocrine cells pancreas, thymus, gonads, and the hypothalamus
endocrine reflexes regulated secretion of hormone controlled through reflex, preprogrammed response to certain stimuli, and initiated by three types of stimulation
three types of stimulation hormonal, humoral, and nervous
hormonal stimulation release of a hormone in response to another hormone
hormonal stimulation example thyroid stimulating hormone released from anterior pituitary which stimulates thyroid gland to secrete thyroid hormone
humoral stimulation response to changing levels of nutrients or ions - hormones act on target cells to offset further loss or eliminate excess (due to changes of hormonal levels in human body)
nervous stimulation release of epinephrine and norepinephrine by adrenal medulla in response to sympathetic nervous stimulation
control of hormone secretions always controlled by feedback loops
negative feedback blood concentration declines below a minimum (more hormone is secreted) and blood concentration exceeds maximum (hormone production is halted)
positive feedback blood concentration of hormones increase (even more hormones are secreted)
pure endocrine organs single organ that is entirely endocrine in function
pure endocrine organs include pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, pineal gland, and adrenal glands
pituitary gland attached to the hypothalamus and has two basic divisions
two basic divisions of the pituitary gland anterior lobe and posterior lobe
anterior lobe growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, melanocyte-stimulating hormone, gonadotropins, and prolactin
posterior lobe antidiuretic hormone, oxytocin
growth hormone stimulates cell growth and cell division, stimulates body growth by stimulating increased protein production and growth of epiphyseal plates, and particularly affects skeletal and muscular system
thyroid-stimulating hormone signals thyroid gland to secrete hormone for regulation of metabolism
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulates adrenal cortex to stimulate hormones that help cope with stress (stimulates adrenal gland)
melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) stimulates rate of melanin-synthesis by melanocytes in skin, and functions in appetite suppression
gonadotropins follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone, regulate hormone synthesis by gonads, and regulate production and maturation of gametes
prolactin targets milk-producing glands in the breast - stimulates milk production
posterior lobe does not make hormones, stores and releases hormones made in the hypothalamus, and releases two hormones
antidiuretic hormone (ADH) targets kidneys to reabsorb water
oxytocin induces smooth muscle contraction of reproductive organs, ejects milk during feedings, and signals contraction of the uterus during childbirth
thyroid gland located in the anterior neck, largest pure endocrine gland, and produces two hormones
thyroid hormone (TH) increases basal metabolic rate
calcitonin lowers calcium blood levels when they are too high
parathyroid glands lie on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland, produce parathyroid hormone
parathyroid hormone (PTH) regulate blood concentration of calcium (released in response to decreased blood calcium levels and returns blood calcium to normal levels)
pineal gland located on the roof of the diencephalon, shaped like a pine cone and is composed primarily of pinealocytes secreting melatonin
melatonin hormone that regulates circadian rhythms, makes us drowsy, cyclic production with increased levels at night, and affects synthesis of hypothalamic hormone
adrenal (suprarenal glands) pyramid-shaped glands located on the superior surface of each kidney that is two endocrine glands in one
two endocrine glands in the adrenal gland adrenal medulla and adrenal cortex
adrenal medulla part of the sympathetic nervous system, forms inner core of each adrenal gland, red-brown color due to extensive blood vessels, and released epinephrine and norepinephrine with sympathetic stimulation
adrenal cortex derived from somatic nervous system, synthesizes more than 25 corticosteroids, yellow color due to lipids within cells, and three regions producing different steroid hormones
adrenal medulla secrete amine hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine
epinephrine and norepinephrine enhance "fight-or-flight" response
adrenal coretex secrete corticosteroids
corticosteroids mineralocorticosteriods, glucocorticoids, and gonadocorticoids
mineralocorticoids aldosterone
aldosterone secreted in response to decline in blood volume or blood pressure, stimulates sodium retention and potassium secretion
glucocorticoids corisol and corticosterone
cortisol and corticosterone helps the body deal with stressful situations, repair damaged tissue
gonadocorticoids androgen
androgen male sex hormones (small amounts)
organs that contain endocrine cells thymus, gonads, pancreas, and hypothalamus
thymus located in the lower neck and anterior thorax, important immune organ, site at which T-lymphocytes mature, and secretes thymic hormones
the gonads main sources of sex hormones - androgens
gonads - organs testes and ovaries
testosterone promotes the formation of sperm and maintains secondary sex characteristics
male sex hormone testosterone
female sex hormone estrogen and progesterone
estrogen maintain secondary sex characteristics
progesterone prepares the uterus for pregnancy
pancreas characteristics elongated organ between duodenum and spleen, posterior to the stomach, performs exocrine and endocrine activities, mostly composed of groups of cells, pancreatic acini (secreted through pancreatic ducts into small intestine)
pancreatic islet cells small clusters of endocrine cells scattered among acini, composed of two primary cell types
two primary cell types of the pancreatic islet cells alpha cells and beta cells
other minor cell types (delta cells and F cells) of the pancreas secretes somatostatin and pancreatic polypeptide respectively
digestive hormones of the pancreas glucagon, insulin, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide
glucagon signals liver to release glucose from glycogen, raises blood sugar
insulin signals most body cells to take up glucose from the blood, promotes storage of glucose as glycogen in liver, and lowers blood sugar
somatostatin inhibits secretion of insulin and glucagon
pancreatic polypeptide regulates pancreatic secretions
blood glucose concentration pancreatic endocrine function - maintaining normal blood glucose, normal range 70-110 mg of glucose/deciliter, chronically high levels damaging to blood vessels & kidneys, low levels result in lethargy, mental & physical impairment, & death (if too low)
hypothalamus influences or controls many endocrine glands, has direct control over hormone release from pituitary gland, has indirect control over hormone release from thyroid and adrenal glands, liver, testes, and ovaries
two hormones stored in posterior pituitary oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
hormones stored in the posterior pituitary nerve signal sent from hypothalamus, hormones released into bloodstream from posterior pituitary
hormones of hypothalamus termed regulatory hormones, releasing hormones, or inhibiting hormones
regulatory hormones secreted into blood to regulate anterior pituitary hormones
releasing hormones stimulate secretion of specific anterior pituitary hormones
inhibiting hormones deter secretion of specific anterior pituitary hormones
six major hormones of the anterior pituitary growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, melanocyte-stimulating hormone, gonadotropins, prolactin
hormones of the hypothalamus thyrotropin-releasing hormone, prolactin-releasing hormone, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, corticotropin-releasing hormone, growth hormone-releasing hormone
thyrotropin-releasing hormone increases secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone
rolactin-releasing hormone increases secretion of prolactin
gonadotropin-releasing hormone increases secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone
corticotropin-releasing hormone increases secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone
growth hormone-releasing hormone increases secretion of growth hormone
growth hormone characteristics release controlled by growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and this release is influenced by age, time of day, nutrient levels, stress, and exercies
Created by: Nicolekr



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