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Ch 1 Vocab. AP Geo

Vocabulary for chapter 1 of The cultural landscape an intro. to human geography

Abiotic composed of nonliving or inorganic matter
Atmosphere thin layer of gases surrounding the Earth
Biosphere all living organisms on Earth
Biotic composed of living organisms
Cartography science of map making
Climate long-term average weather condition at a particular location
Concentration spread of something over a given area
Connection relationships among people and objects across the barrier of space
Conservation the sustainable management of a natural resource
Contagious diffusion rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population
Cultural ecology geographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationships
Cultural landscape fashioning of a natural landscape to a cultural group
Culture body of customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits that together constitute a group's distinct tradition
Density frequency with which something exists within a given unit of area
Diffusion process of spread of a feature or trend from one place to another over time
Distance decay diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin
Distribution arrangement of something across Earth's surface
Ecology scientific study of ecosystems
Ecosystem group of living organisms and the abiotic spheres with which they interact
Environmental determinism 19th- & early 20th-century approach to the study of geography which argued that the general laws sought by human geographers could be found in the physical sciences. Geography was study of physical environment effects on human activities
Expansion diffusion spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in an additive process
Formal region (or uniform or homogenous region) area in which everyone shares in common one or more distinctive characteristics
Functional region (or nodal region) area organized around a node or local point
Geographic information science (GIScience) development and analysis of data about Earth acquired through satellite and other electronic information technologies
Geographic information system (GIS) computer system that stores, organizes, analyzes, and displays geographic data
Global Positioning System (GPS) system that determines the precise position of something on Earth through a series of satellites, tracking stations, and receivers
Globalization Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) time in the zone encompassing the prime meridian, or 0º longitude
Hearth region from which innovative ideas originate
Hierarchical diffusion spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to other persons or places
Housing bubble rapid increase in the value of houses followed by a sharp decline in their value
Hydrosphere all of the water on and near Earth's surface
International Date Line Arc that for the most part follows 180º longitude, although it deviates in several places to avoid dividing land areas. When you cross heading east(toward Americas), the clock moves back 1 day. When you go west(towards Asia) the clock moves ahead 1 day
Latitude numbering system used to indicate the location of parallels drawn on a globe and measuring distance north and south of the equator
Lithosphere Earth's crust and a portion of upper manlte directly below the crust
Location position of anything on Earth's surface
Longitude numbering system used to indicate the location of meridians drawn on a globe and measuring distance east and west of the prime meridian
Map two-dimensional representation of Earth's surface or portion of it
Map scale relationship between the size of an object on a map and the size of the actual feature on Earth's surface
Mental map representation of a portion of Earth's surface based on what an individual knows about a place, containing personal impresssions of what is in the place and where the place is located
Meridian arc drawn on a map between the North and South poles
Network chain of communication that connects places
Nonrenewable resource something produced in nature more slowly than it is consumed by humans
Parallel circle drawn around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to the meridians
Pattern geometric or regular arrangement of something in a study area
Place specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular characteristic
Polder Land created by the Dutch by draining water from an area
Possibilism theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives
Preservation maintenance of resources in their prsent condition, with as little human impact as posssible
Prime meridian meridian designated as 0º longitude, that passes through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England
Projection system used to transfer locations from Earth's surface to a flat map
Region area distinguished by a unique combination of trends or features
Regional (or cultural landscape) studies approach to geography that emphasizes the relationships among social and physical phenomena in a particular study area
Relocation diffusion spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another
Remote sensing acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or from other long-distance methods
Renewable resource something produced in nature more rapidly than it's consumed by humans
Resource substance in the environment that is useful to people, is economically and technologically feasible to acces, and is socially acceptable to use
Scale Generally, the relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and Earth as a whole
Site physical characteristic of a place
Situation location of a place relative to another place
Space physical character of a place
Space-time continuum reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place as a result of improved communication and transportation systems
Stimulus diffusion spread of an underlying principle even though a specific characteristic is rejected
Sustainability use of Earth's renewable and nonrenewable natural resources in ways that do not constrain resource use in the future
Toponym name given to a portion of Earth's surface
Created by: ivanderzon17
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