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Chapter 16

caravel a sailing vessal that uses square and triangular sails to help it sail against the wind
Henry the Navigator Prince of Portugal and patron of exploration; he made no voyages himself but spent his life directing voyages of discovery along the African coast
Vasco da Gama Portuguese navigator; in 1497-1499, he became the first European to sail around Africa and reach India by sea.
Christopher Columbus Italian explorer, sailing for Spain, who reached the Americas in 1492 while searching for a western sea route from Europe to Asia
Ferdinand Magellan Portuguese navigator; his ships were the first to circumnavigate the globe, though he died on the journey.
circumnavigate to proceed completely around
Sir Francis Drake English admiral; he rounded the tip of South America and explored the west coast. He ended up having west to return to England, thus becoming the second man to circumnavigate the globe
Henry Hudson English navigator; he sailed for the Dutch East India Company and discovered the Hudson River in present day New York
encomienda Spanish colonial system in which a colonist was given a certain amount of land and a number of Native Americans to work the land in exchange for teaching the Native Americans Christianity
Hernan Cortes Spanish conquistador; from 1519 to 1521, he defeated the Aztec Empire, conquering Mexico for Spain.
conquistador a Spanish soldier and explorer who led military expeditions in the Americas and captured land for Spain
Moctezuma II Aztec ruler from 1502 to 1520; he was the emperor of the Aztecs when Cortes and his army conquered the empire. He was taken prisoner and killed during battle with the Spanish army.
Francisco Pizzaro Spanish conquistador, conqueror of Peru; founder of Lima, Peru. From 1530 to 1533, he conquered the Inca Empire
Atahualpa Last Inca king; he was taken prisoner by Pizarro and his army after refusing to accept Christianity and surrender his empire to Spanish conquistadors. He was killed by the Spanish and his empire was taken over
viceroys officials who ruled Spain's American empire
Bartolome de La Casas a 16th-century Spanish historian, social reformer and Dominican friar.
Treaty of Tordesillas the agreement between Spain and Portugal that created
Columbian Exchange the transfer of plants, animals, and diseases between the Americas and Europe, Asia and Africa beginning with the voyages of Columbus
mercantilism an economic system used from about the 1500s to the 1700s that held that a nation's power was directly related to its wealth
balance of trade the difference in value between what a nation imports and exports over a period
subsidies grants of money
capitalism economic system in which most of business
joint-stock companies businesses formed by groups of people who jointly make an investment and share in the profits and looses.
plantations large farms that usually specialized in the growing of one type of crop for a profit
triangular trade trading network lasting from the 1600s to the 1800s that carried goods and enslaved people between Europe, the Americas, and Africa
Middle Passage the name of voyages that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to the North America and the West Indies
Olaudah Equiano African American abolitionist; he was enslaved African who was eventually freed, became a leader of the abolitionist movement, and wrote The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano
African Diaspora the dispersal of people of African descent throughout the Americans and Western Europe due to the slave trade.
Created by: lcs1340020