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APWH 23-25

Population Revolution huge growth in population in Western Europe beginning about 1730; prelude to industrialization.
Proto-industrialization preliminary shift away from an agricultural economy; workers become full or part-time producers who worked at home in a capitalist system in which materials, work, orders, and sales depended on urban merchants; prelude to the Industrial Revolution.
American Revolution rebellion of the British American Atlantic seaboard colonies; ended with the formation of the independent United States.
French Revolution overthrow of the Bourbon monarchy through a revolution beginning in 1789; created a republic and eventually ended with Napoleon's French empire; the source of many liberal movements and constitutions in Europe.
Louis XVI Bourbon ruler of France who was executed during the radical phase of the French Revolution.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen adopted during the French Revolution; proclaimed the equality of French citizens; became a source document for later liberal movements.
guillotine introduced as a method of humane execution; utilized during the French Revolution against thousands of individuals, especially during the Reign of Terror.
Robespierre leader of the radical phase of the French Revolution; presided over the Reign of Terror; arrested and executed by moderate revolutionaries.
Napoleon Bonaparte army officer who rose in rank during the wars of the French Revolution; ended the democratic phase of the revolution; became emperor; deposed and exiled in 1815.
Congress of Vienna met in 1815 after the defeat of France to restore the European balance of power
liberalism political ideology that flourished in 19th-century western Europe; stressed limited state interference in private life, representation of the people in government; urged importance of constitutional rule and parliaments.
radicals followers of a 19th-century western European political emphasis: advocated broader voting rights than liberals; urged reforms favoring the lower classes.
socialism political ideology in 19th-century Europe; attacked private property in the name of equality; wanted state control of the means of production and an end to the capitalistic exploitation of the working class.
nationalism European 19th-century viewpoint; often allied with other "isms"; urged the importance of national unity; valued a collective identity based on ethnic origins.
Greek Revolution rebellion of the Greeks against the Ottoman Empire in 1820; a key step in the disintegration of the Turkish Balkan empire.
French Revolution of 1830 second revolution against the Bourbon dynasty; a liberal movement which created a bourgeois government under a moderate monarchy.
Belgian Revolution of 1830 produced Belgian independence from the Dutch; established a constitutional monarchy.
Reform Bill of 1832 British legislation that extended the vote to most male members of the middle class
James Watt devised a steam engine in the 1770s that could be used for production in many industries; a key step in the Industrial Revolution.
factory system intensification of all of the processes of production at a single site during the Industrial Revolution; involved greater organization of labor and increased discipline.
Luddites workers in Britain who responded to the replacement of their labor by machines during the Industrial Revolution by attempting to destroy machines; named after the fictional worker Ned Ludd.
Chartist Movement unsuccessful attempt by British artisans and workers to gain the vote during the 1840s.
French Revolution of 1848 overthrew the French monarchy established in 1830; briefly established the 2nd French Republic.
Revolutions of 1848 the nationalist and liberal movements within the Habsburg Empire (Italy, Germany, Austria, Hungary); after temporary success they were suppressed.
Louis Pasteur discoverer of germs and of the purifying process named after him.
Benjamin Disraeli British politician; granted the vote to working-class males in 1867; an example of conservative politicians keeping stability through reform.
Camillo di Cavour architect of Italian unification in 1858; created a constitutional Italian monarchy under the King of Piedmont.
Otto von Bismarck Otto von Bismarck conservative prime minister of Prussia; architect of German unification under the Prussian king in 1871; utilized liberal reforms to maintain stability.
American Civil War (1861-1865) fought to prevent secession of the southern states; the first war to incorporate the products and techniques of the Industrial Revolution; resulted in the abolition of slavery and the reunification of the United States.
transformismo political system in Italy that allied conservative and liberals in support of the status quo.
"social question" issues relating to workers and women, in western Europe during the Industrial Revolution; became more critical than constitutional issues after 1870.
Karl Marx German socialist who saw history as a class struggle between groups out of power and those controlling the means of production; preached the inevitability of social revolution and the creation of a proletarian dictatorship.
revisionism socialist thought that disagreed with Marx's formulation; believed that social and economic progress could be achieved through existing political institutions.
feminist movements sought legal and economic gains for women, among them equal access to professions and higher education; came to concentrate on the right to vote; won initial support from middle-class women.
mass leisure culture an aspect of the later Industrial Revolution; decreased time at work and offered opportunities for new forms of leisure time, such as vacation trips and team sports.
Charles Darwin biologist who developed the theory of evolution of species; argued that all living forms evolved through the successful ability to adapt in a struggle for survival.
Albert Einstein formulated mathematical theories to explain the behavior of planetary motion and the movement of electrical particles; about 1900 issued the theory of relativity.
Sigmund Freud Viennese physician who developed theories of the workings of the human unconscious; argued that behavior is determined by impulses.
Romanticism 19th western European artistic and literary movement; held that emotion and impression, not reason, were the keys to the mysteries of human experience and nature; sought to portray passions, not calm reflection.
American exceptionalism historical argument that the development of the United States was largely individualistic and that contact with Europe was incidental to American formation.
Triple Alliance alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy at the end of the 19th century; part of the European balance of power system before World War I.
Triple Entente agreement between Britain, Russia, and France in 1907; part of the European balance of power system before World War I.
Balkan nationalism movements to create independent states and reunite ethnic groups in the Balkans; provoked crises within the European alliance system that ended with the outbreak of World War I.
Kingdom of Mataram controlled most of interior Java in the 17th century; weakness of the state after the 1670s allowed the Dutch to expand their control over all of Java.
sepoys Indian troops, trained in European style, serving the French and British.
Raj the British political establishment in India.
Plassey (1757) battle between the troops of the British East India Company and an Indian army under Siraj-ud-daula, ruler of Bengal; British victory gave them control of northeast India.
Robert Clive architect of British victory at Plassey; established foundations of the Raj in northern India.
Presidencies three districts that comprised the bulk of British ruled territories in India during the early 19th century; capitals at Calcutta, Madras, and Bombay.
Princely States ruled by Indian princes allied with the Raj; agents of the East India Company were stationed at their courts to ensure loyalty.
nabobs name given to Britons who went to India to make fortunes through graft and exploitation; returned to Britain to live richly.
Charles Cornwallis British official who reformed East India Company corruption during the 1790s.
Isandhlwana (1879) Zulu defeat of a British army; one of the few indigenous victories over 19th-century European armies.
tropical dependencies Western European possessions in Africa, Asia, and the South Pacific where small numbers of Europeans ruled large indigenous populations.
White Dominions a type of settlement colony - as in North America and Australia - where European settlers made up the majority of the population.
settler colonies colonies - as South Africa, New Zealand, Algeria, Kenya, and Hawaii - where minority European populations lived among majority indigenous peoples.
white racial supremacy belief in the inherent superiority of whites over the rest of humanity; peaked in the period before World War I.
Great Trek migration into the South African interior of thousands of Afrikaners seeking to escape British control.
Boer republics independent states - the Orange Free State and Transvaal; - established during the 1850s in the South African interior by Afrikaners.
Cecil Rhodes British entrepreneur in South Africa; manipulated political situation to gain entry to the diamonds and gold discovered in the Boer republics.
Boer War (1899-1902) fought between the British and Afrikaners; British victory and post-war policies left African, population of South Africa under Afrikaner control.
James Cook his voyages to Hawaii from 1777 to 1779 opened the islands to the West.
Kamehameha Hawaiian prince; with British backing he created a unified kingdom by 1810; promoted the entry of Western ideas in commerce and social relations.
Great Mahele Hawaiian edict issued in 1848 that imposed Western property concepts; that resulted in much Hawaiian land passed to Western commercial interests.
Toussaint L'Overture leader of the slave rebellion on the French island of St. Domingue in 1791; led to the creation of the independent republic of Haiti in 1804.
mask of Ferdinand term given to the movements in Latin America allegedly loyal to the deposed Bourbon king of Spain; they actually were Creole movements for independence.
Miguel de Hidalgo Mexican priest who established an independence movement among Indians and mestizos in 1810; after early victories he was captured and executed.
Augustín Iturbide conservative Creole officer in the Mexican army who joined the independence movement; made emperor in 1821.
Simon Bolívar Creole military officer in northern South America; won victories in Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador between 1817 and 1822 that led to the independent state of Gran Colombia.
Gran Colombia existed as an independent state until 1830 when Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador became separate independent nations.
José de San Martín leader of movements in Rio de la Plata that led to the independence of the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata by 1816; later led independence movements in Chile and Peru.
João VI Portuguese monarch who fled the French to establish his court in Brazil from 1808 to 1820; Rio de Janeiro became the real capital of the Portuguese empire.
Pedro I son and successor of João VI in Brazil; aided in the declaration of Brazilian independence in 1822 and became constitutional emperor
José Rodríguez de Francia ruler of independent Paraguay as dictator until 1840.
Andrés Santa Cruz mestizo general who established a union between independent Peru and Bolivia between 1829 and 1839.
caudillos leaders in independent Latin America who dominated local areas by force in defiance of national policies; sometimes seized the national government.
centralists Latin American politicians who favored strong, centralized national governments with broad powers; often supported by conservative politicians.
federalists Latin American politicians who favored regional governments rather than centralized administrations; often supported by liberal politicians.
Monroe Doctrine United States declaration of 1823 that any attempt by a European country to colonize the Americas would be considered an unfriendly act.
guano bird droppings utilized as fertilizer; a major Peruvian export between 1850 and 1880.
positivism a philosophy based on the ideas of Auguste Compte; stressed observation and scientific approaches to the problems of society.
Antonio López de Santa Ana Mexican general who seized power after the collapse of the Mexican republic in 1835.
Manifest Destiny belief in the United States that it was destined to rule from the Atlantic to the Pacific.
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo (1848) ratified Mexican by the United States; Mexico lost one-half of national territory.
Benito Juárez Indian lawyer and politician who led a liberal revolution against Santa Ana; defeated by the French who made Maximilian emperor; returned to power from 1867 to 1872.
La Reforma name of Juárez's liberal revolution.
Maximilian von Habsburg Austrian archduke proclaimed Emperor of Mexico as a result of French intervention in 1862; after the French withdrawal he executed in 1867.
gauchos mounted rural workers in the Rio de la Plata region.
Juan Manuel de Rosas federalist leader in Buenos Aires; took power in 1831; commanded loyalty of gauchos; restored local autonomy.
Argentine Republic replaced state of Buenos Aires in 1862 as a result of a compromise between centralists and federalists.
Domingo F. Sarmiento liberal politician and president of the Argentine Republic; author of Facundo, a critique of caudillo politics; increased international trade and launched reforms in education and transportation.
fazendas coffee estates that spread into the Brazilian interior between 1840 and 1860; caused intensification of slavery.
modernization theory the belief that the more industrialized, urban, and modern a society became, the more social change and improvement were possible as traditional patterns and attitudes were abandoned or transformed.
dependency theory the belief that development and underdevelopment were not stages but were part of the same process; that development and growth of areas like western Europe were achieved at the expense of underdevelopment of dependent regions like Latin America.
Porfirio Díaz one of Juárez's generals; elected president of Mexico in 1876 and dominated politics for 35 years.
cientificos advisors to Díaz's government who were influenced strongly by Positivist ideas.
Spanish American War Spanish American War: fought between Spain and the United States beginning in 1898; resulted in annexation of Puerto Rico and the Philippines; permitted American intervention in the Caribbean.
Panama Canal the United States supported an independence movement in Panama, then part of Colombia, in return for the exclusive rights for a canal across the Panama isthmus.
Created by: msurapaneni