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AP Human Agriculture
|Purposeful modification of Earth's surface through cultivation of crops and raising livestock for either consumption or economic gain.
|How did agriculture begin? How did it affect the hunter-gather lifestyle?
|Agriculture began when humans began domesticating plants and animals for usage. The hunters and gatherers soon stopped migrating so much, and settled down in a given place.
|A grass yielding grain for food.
|What kind of system was developed that used cereal grains? Where and when was it developed?
|A two-field crop-rotation system was developed, where two fields rotate crops annually. It was developed in N. Europe as early as the fifth century.
|Husks of grain separated from the seed by threshing.
|How are chaffs separated from the seeds?
|The heads are beaten on the ground or treaded on.
|A machine that reaps, threshes and cleans grain as it moves over the field.
|In how many operations does the combine machines reap, thresh and clean?
|Large-scale agriculture undertaken primarily to generate product for the sale of the farm.
|Is commercial agriculture practiced more in LDCs or MDCs?
|MDCs tend to practice commercial agriculture more.
|Grain or fruit gathered from a field as a harvest for a specific season.
|A crop is any plant ____ by people.
|A crop is any plant cultivated by people.
|The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid depleting and exhausting the soil.
|Where is crop rotation usually employed?
|In milder parts of a region where wet rice is not dominant.
|Degradation of land, especially in the semiarid regions, mainly because of human activity such as excessive crop planting, animal grazing and tree cutting.
|How many acres of land have been degraded globally, according to the Earth Policy Institue?
|About 5 million acres.
|Harvesting twice a year from the same field.
|Where is double cropping common? What does double cropping typically involve?
|Double cropping is common in places with warm winters, such as S. China and Taiwan. It typically involves alternating between wet rice, grown in the rainy summers, and wheat, barley or another dry crop for the drier winter.
|Seed of a cereal grass.
|What are som examples of grains? Which is the most important?
|Wheat, corn, oats, barley, rice and millet are some grains. Whet is the most important, as it can make bread flour.
|Diffusion of new agricultural technology, namely new high-yield seeds and fertilizers.
|What were the two main practices of the green revolution? When did it take place?
|The two main practices were introducing new higher-yield seeds and diffusing the use of fertilzers. The green revolution took place in the 1970s and 1980s.
|The growing of fruits, vegetables and flowers.
|Where is horiculture for human consumption prevalent?
|The outer covering of a seed.
|How is the hull removed?
|By mortar and pestle.
|Intensive subsistence agriculture
|A subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a considerably large amount of effort to make the maximum feasible yield form a parcel of land.
|Where do most farmers practice intensive subsistence agriculture? How do their farms compare to the rest of the world's?
|East, South, and Southeast Asia. Their farms are smaller and fragmented.
|The area surrounding a city from which milk is supplied.
|What has permitted dairying to be undertaken farther from the market?
|Malay word for wet rice, commonly used to describe a sawah.
|Is the European and North American usage of this word correct or incorrect?
|Form of subsistence agriculture that is based on the herding of domesticated animals.
|What factors affect which animals are in the herd? What are some example animals?
|Local cultural and physical characterisitcs. Some example herd animals are camels, sheep, goats (all popular in N. Agrica and S.W. Asia), and horses (populat in Cent. Asia)
|Grass or other plants grown for feeding grazing animals, as well as land used for grazing.
|What pastures might animals graze in during the summer? The winter?
|Summer: Alpine meadows. Winter: Valleys
|Large farm in tropical or subtropical conditions that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usually in an MDC.
|What kind of crops could be grown on a plantation? Where are plantations usually situated? Where were plantations important during the U.S. Civil War?
|Crops could include cotton, sugarcane, coca, rubber, tobacco, jute, tea, coconuts, palm ol and bananas. Plantations are usually in sparesley settled locations. The U.S. South had a need for plantations, for the principal crop was cotton.
|Prime agricultural land
|The most productive farmland.
|What is the problem regarding prime agricultral land in the United States?
|There has been a loss of 500,000 acreas, or 200,000 hectares, of the prime agricultral farmland. The amount of productive farmland has drastically decreased from its alltime peak in the 1960s.
|Form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area.
|Where is ranching adapted to?
|Semiarid or arid land in MDCs, where vegetation is too sparse and soil too poor to support crops.
|A machine that cuts cereal grain standing in the field.
|When was the reaper invented? What did it give way to?
|Invented in the 1830s. Gave way to large-scale wheat production.
|System of planting crops on ridge tops in order to reduce farm production costs and promote greater soil conservation.
|Why is ridge tillage attractive to farmers?
|Because they have lower production costs and greater soil conservation.
|A flooded field for growing rice.
|What language is "Sawha"?
|The Austronesian language spone primarily in Indonesia and Java.
|Subsistence agriculture where people shift activity from one field to another. The field used for crops for a relatively few years and left fallow for a long period.
|Who usually practices shifting cultivation? When does the most productive cultivation happen? What happens afterwards?
|People in small villages usually practice shifting cultivarion. The most productive time for cultivation is the second year after burning; afterward, nutrients in the soil are depleted and land may become infertile.
|Shifting cultivation in which fields are cleared by slashing the vegetation and burning the debris.
|What would be a process of a slash-and-burn?
|People cut down most trees, sparing economically useful ones. The undergrowth is cleared with a knife. On a windless day, the leftover debris is burned under controlled conditions. Rain will then wash the ashes into the soil, providing nutrients.
|Wheat planted in spring and harvested in late summer.
|Where is the spring wheat belt?
|The Dakotas, Montana and southern Saskatchewan (Canada).
|Agriculture by which the farmer provides food for himself and his family.
|Is subsistence agriculture praciced more in LDCs or MDCs?
|LDCs practice more subsistence agriculture.
|Farming methods that preserve long-term productivity of land and minimize pollution, usually through rotating soil restoring crops with cash crops and reducing fertilizers and pesticides.
|What is an increasingly popular form of sustainable agriculture?
|Patch of land cleared for agriculture through slash-and-burning.
|How long is swiddn able to support crops?
|About 3 years; it is very brief.
|To beat out grain for stalks by trampling it.
|What is the purpose to thresh?
|To separate the chaff, or husk of a seed, from the actual seed.
|Seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures.
|What is transhumance similar to? What is the difference?
|Nomadic pastrolism. Transhumance is the seasonal migration of livestock, correlated to nomadic pastorlism, the general migration of people and livestock.
|Commercial gardening and fruit farming.
|What do truck farms grow? How are most of what is grown sold?
|Truck farms grow high demand fruits and vegetables, like apples, asparagus, cherries, lettuce, tomates and mushrooms. They are usually sold to large processors for canning or freezing, and are rarely sold fresh.
|Rice planted on dry land in a nursery and then moves to a flooded field to promote growth.
|Is wet rice a large percentage of Asia's agricultural landscape? Why is this odd?
|No, wet rice isn't a large percentage of Asia's agricultural land. This is odd, however, because wet rice is the region's most important crop.
|To remove chaff by allowing it to be blown away by wind.
|The ___ rice is allowed to be blown away by the wind.
|Wheat planted in the fall and harvested in early summer.
|Where is the winter wheat belt?
|Kansas, Colorado and Oklahoma.
|Commercial agriculture characterized by the integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations.
|What are the services related to agribusiness? What percent of the U.S. works in food production and such services?
|The services related to agribusiness include food processing, packaging, storing, distributing, and retailing. About 20% of the U.S. labor force works in food production and agribusiness.