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acetabular pertaining to the hip socket
calcaneal pertaining to the heel bone
carpal pertaining to the wrist
cervical pertaining to the neck
clavicular pertaining to the collar bone
coccygeal pertaining to the tail bone
costal cartilage pertaining to the rib cartilage
cranial pertaining to the skull
femoral pertaining to the thigh bone
fibular pertaining to the lower leg bone
fontanel soft spots. fontanels allow the cranial bone to move together as the head goes through the birth canal and move apart as the brain grows during childhood.
frontal pertaining to the front
humeral pertaining to the upper arm bone
iliac pertaining to the hip bone
intervertebral pertaining to in between vertebra
ischial pertaining to the hip bone
lacrimal pertaining to tears
lumbar pertaining to the lower back or area between the ribs and the pelvis
mandibular pertaining to the lower jaw
mastoid resembling the breast
maxillary pertaining to the upper jaw
metacarpal pertaining to after the wrist
metatarsal pertaining to after the ankle
musuloskeletal pertaining to the muscle skeleton
occipital pertaining to the back of the head
olecranon a large, square projection that form the point of the elbow
parietal pertaining to the wall of the cavity
patellar pertaining to the knee cap
pelvic pertaining to the hip bone/renal pelvis
phanlangeal pertaining to the fingers or toes
pubic pertaining to the hip bone (pubis)
radial pertaining to the radius (forearm bone)
sacral pertaining to the sacrum
sagittal pertaining to going from front to back
scapular pertaining to the shoulder blade
sternal pertaining to the breast bone
tarsal pertaining to the ankle
temporal pertaining to the temple (side of the head)
thoracic pertaining to the chest
tibial pertaining to the shin bone
ulnar pertaining to the ulna (forearm bone)
vertebral pertaining to the vertebra
xiphoid resembling a sword
bone tumor osteoma is a beign tumor of the bone. osteosarcoma is a maligant bone tumor in which osteoblasts, the cells that form new bone, multiply uncontrollably. it is also known as osteogenic sarcoma.
fracture the result of break up
closed fracture any fracture in which the bone does not break through the overlying skin
open fracture any fracture in which the bone breaks through the overlying skin. also known as a compound fracture
non-displaced fracture broken bone ends remain in ther anatomical alignment
displaced fracture broken bone ends are pulled out of their normal anatomical alignment
colles' fracture distal radius is broken by falling onto an outstretched hand
comminuted fracture bone is crushed into several small pieces
depressed fracture cranium is fractured inward toward the breain
greenstick fracture bone is broken on only one side. this occurs in shildren because part of the none is still flexible cartilage
hairline fracture very thin fracture line with the bone pieces still together. hard to detect except in an x-ray
oblique fracture bone is broken on an oblique angle
spiral fracture bone is broken in a sprial because of a twisting force
transverse fracture bone is broken in a transverse plane perpendicular to its long axis
hemarthrosis blood in the joint cavity from blunt trauma or a penetrating wound
kyphosis abnormal, excessive, posterior curvature of the thoracic spine.
lordosis abnormal, excessive anterior curvature of the lumbar spine
osteomalacia abnormal softening of the bones due to a deficiency of vitamin D in the diet or inadequate exposure to the sun whose rays make vitamin D in the skin.
osteoporosis abnormal thinning of the bone structure
osteomyelitis infection in the bone and the bone marrow.
ankylosing spondylitis chronic inflammation of the vertebrae that leads to fibrosis, fusion, and restriction of movement of the spine
dislocation displacement of the end of a bone from its normal position within a joint
gout metabolic disorder that occurs most often in men. there is a high level of uric acid in the blood.
Lyme disease arthritis caused by a bacterium in the bite of an infected deer tick
osteoarthritis chronic inflammatory disease of the joints, particularly the large weight-bearing joins and joints that move repeatedly.
rheumatoid arthritis acute and chronic inflammatory disease of connective tissue, particularly of the joints
scoliosis abnormal, excessive, c-shaped or s-shaped lateral curvature of the spine
sprain over stretching or tearing of a ligament around a joint
torn meniscus tear of the cartilage pad of the knee because of an injury
genu valgum congenital deformity in which the knees are rotated toward the midline and are abnormally close together and the lower legs are bent laterally
genu varum congenital deformity in which the knees are rotated laterally away from each other and the lower legs are bent toward the midline
hallux valgus deformity in which the great toes angled laterally toward the other toes
talipes equinovarus congenital deformity in which the foot is pulled downward and toward the midline
rheumatoid factor (RF) blood test that is usually positive in patients with rheumatoid arthritis
uric acid blood test that has an elevated level in patients with gout and gouty arthritis
bone density test procedure that measures the bone mineral density to determine if demineralization from osteoporosis has occurred
DEXA scan uses two x-ray beams with different energy levels to creat a two-dimensional image
QCT scan uses an x-ray beam and a CT scan to create a three-dimensional image.
amputation procedure to remove all or part of an extremity because of trauma, cardiovascular disease, or diabetes mellitus.
closed reduction procedure in which manual manipulation of a displaced fracture is performed so that the bone ends go back into normal alignment without the need for surgery.
bone graft procedure that uses whole bone or bone chips to repair fractures with extensive bone loss or defects due to bone cancer.
autograft bone taken from the patient's own body
allograft frozen or freeze-dried bone taken from a cadaver
arthroplasty the process of reshaping by the joint
arthroscopy procedure that uses an arthroscope inserted into the joint to visualize structures inside the joint
bunionectomy procedure to remove the prominent part of the metatarsal bone that is causing a bunion
external fixation procedure used to treat a complicated fracture
total hip replacement a surgery done on the hips to replace a joint that has been destroyed by disease or osteoarthritis.
prosthesis orthopedic device such as an artificial leg for a patient who has had an amputation of a limb
traction procedure that uses weight to pulle the bone ends of a fracture into correct alignment.
aarthrocentesis procedure to remove an accumulation of fluid from an injured joint by using a needle inserted intot he joint space.
arthrodesis procedure to fuse the bones n a degenerated, unstable joint
ORIF procedure to treat a complicated fracture
goniometry procedure in which a goniometer is used to measure the angle of a joint and its ROM
orthrosis orthopedic device such as a brace, splint, or collar that is used to immobilize a body part and keep it straight or correct an orthopedic problem
analgesic pertaining to without the sensation of pain
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAIDS) pertaining to not a steriod
corticosteriod cortex (outer region) steriod
bone resorption inhibitor inhibit osteoclasts from breaking down bone
gold compound inhibit the immune response that attacks the joints and connective tissue in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
AKA above the knee amputation
AP anteroposterior
BKA below the knee amputation
BMD bone mineral density
CHD congentital dislocation of the hip
ESWT extracorporeal shock wave therapy
OA osteoarthritis
C1-C7 cervical vertebrae
Ca calcium
Fx fracture
L1-L5 lumbar vertebrae
LLE left lower extremity
LUE left upper extremity
P phosphorus
RF rheumatoid factor
NSAID nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug
Ortho orthopedics
ORIF open reduction and internal fixation
PT physical therapy or physical therapist
RA rheumatoid arthritis
RLE right upper extremity
ROM range of motion
RUE right lower extremity
T1-T12 thoracic vertebrae
THR total hip replacement
tib-fib tibia-fibula
DJD degenerative joint disease
Created by: Beckster_Bug