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Neuro of Reward

Reward and Motivation

Major aspects include = ? * liking (e.g., pleasure, hedonia), --- wanting (e.g., motivation for reward, incentive salience), --- learning (e.g., past experiences predicting future rewards)
System that drives the Reward System = ? * Neurons containing dopamine are located in the substantia nigra pars impacta and the ventral tegmental area of the ventral midbrain... * Mesostriatal -- Mesolimbic -- Mesocortical
Mesolimbic Dopamine Pathway = ? * projects the nucleus accumbens (ventral striatum), but also, to other limbic areas .... * responsible for attaching the “want” (reward) and remembering how we can get it
Mesocortical dopamine pathway = ? * Pleasure pathway (we already know we want it, but it is pleasurable to have it)
The last two pathways = ? * Overlap = Mesocorticolimbic Pathway
When stimulated, can cause positive immediate responses ? * Septal Area
Reward Pathway = ? * Main pathway to remember…. VTA --> accumbens --> prefrontal Cortex/cingulate gyrus
Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA) = ? * The VTA is the site of dopaminergic neurons which tell the organism whether an environmental stimulus is rewarding or aversive
Nucleus Accumbens (NAc) = ? * also called ventral striatum, is a principle target of VTA dopamine neurons. This region mediates the rewarding effects of natural rewards and drugs of abuse.
Role of the NAc = ? * Attaches motivation to reward (the want)... * if lesioned, no motivation to want things/do things to get it (lose connection between the reward w/ motivation)
Once an animal learns how to obtain a reward and the relevant behaviors become engrained, what happens ? *reward seeking or motivation no longer depends on the NAc but is supported by the dorsal striatum.... * The behavior becomes ‘automated’ (a certain cue can stimulate this)
Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA) and when we see something we want (ex. a reward) ? * When we see a reward, VTA Fires and release dopamine in to the NAc… *Attaches a reward with a want
Patients treated with D2 dopamine receptor agonists, what do we see happen ? * Can happen in Parkinson's patients... * see new risky behavior/gambling/shopping/etc... *overstimulate the NAc
Dopamine and reward ? * Dopamine does not function in mediating pleasure.... * Dopamine circuits play a role in connecting reward-related stimuli to motivation
Patterns of VTA Dopamine Neuron Firing = ? * When a reward is predicted from cues and is exactly as expected, firing changes to a tonic pattern. There is no additional release. When the predicted reward is omitted or less than expected, VTA dopamine pause their firing to below basal levels
Continued... * If reward is greater, then we see a continued release
other neurotransmitter systems are also affected ? * not just Dopamine, but serotonin and glutamate
Addictive Reward System = ? * Always better than normal and they don’t shut off the pulse of dopamine (a continued on switch)…increase firing of the VTA ... * sugary or fatty foods can even cause this
Addiction causes a greater release of dopamine over a greater period of time than natural rewards, and causes what ? * NAc Dopamine receptors become decreased.... * now they need a greater reward to feel the pleasure
DA Receptors influence drug liking: explain ? * Those with already high Dopamine Receptors, are less likely to like the effects of a dopamine agonist.... * If low Dopamine receptor ppl get it, they love the feeling (possible link to who has an addictive personality?)
Why can't addicts just simply quit = ? * In Addiction, reward it better than normal, and drive is not shut down.... * Due to a rewiring in brain circuitry
In control of Inhibitory Control ? * PFC – prefrontal cortex and the ACG – anterior cingulate gyrus
Created by: thamrick800