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Unit 5

QuestionAnswer
What is absolutism it is were a king has all control over everything
Where is absolutism still taking place western Europe and Russia
where is absolutism not taking place England- constiunal monarchy
What were the European wars of the 1600s and 1700s for for land
Dutch vs Spanish/Portuguese in the European wars In America and Asia
British vs dutch significant in European war Protestant both
Seven year war (1756-1763) French Vs England British won
What was the enlighment applying scientific revolution to human nature
Jhon Locke believes that if the gov fails it should be destroyed and replaces
Jean jaques Rosseau beleieves that giv should have limited power and should be subordinate to the community
Voltaire Believes monarchy should use the enlighment to change the gov
Who ruled with an enlighment manner Catherine the Great-Russia Fedrick the great- Prussia
How did women help during enlighment opened salons,
the enlighment was poular to the elite good in the Americas so it could spread
AMerican Revolution 1775-1800
What was the cause of th AR England has probs with the native americans, and getting money to fight france
What did they pass to solve for problems in AR proclamation of 1763- banning to go west Qubec act of 1774- try to limit native contact in ohio stamp act- direct tax (boycotted) tonwshed act- indirect tax (boycotted)
who were the sons of liberty the members who boycotted and said Taxation without representation
Bosston massacare 1770 protesting over jobs with the british and Bostonians
Est Indian componay monopoly on tea caused tea tax and then the boston tea party
Intolarble Acts punishment put on Boston 1. Boston Harbor closed 2. Millitary sent to massachuets
Continetal Congress led by George Washington made a currency and army for the colonies
Art if speaking common sense written by Thomas paine decleration of independence written by Thomas Jefferson
Patriots vs loyalist patriots were American loyalist were british had slaves on there side
Who were the allies for America franch-navy spain and utch
how d0es the AR end victory for americans in Yorktown signed the treaty of pairs
Articles of conferration first gov in usa
Costuional Convention 2nd gov in usa made American bill of rights and constitution
Frecnch revolution had absolutist gov
How was the French society before split into 3 societys (born into) 1.clergy 2.noble 3. bourguise and present and payed taxtes
Meeting estate general in france 3 groups each represent one class
National Assembly 3rd French group that wants made rights of man caused constuional monarchy
Storming of Bastil symbol of beginning of French revolution
Capture of the king and queen of france led to national assembly passes a constitution that limted the power of the monarchy Austria and Prussia interfered war was declared, king and queen were exiled
The terror Maxilmlean Robeaspeiree, led national convention killing of clergy and people ended by his execution
what was the new type of gov in france after the constitution The directory popular authoritsm by napoleon
Napoleans reform Concordate of 1801- protectiong of property, no classes, reduction of state power civil code of 1804- no privilege based off birth freedom of religion, had restricition on women and speech
Hatian revolution started same year as frenchj
Saint dominque colony of france, richest because of sugar, brutal, mixed raced babies
what lead to hatian revolution instability in france
Tossuiant freed slave, led slave rebbelion
when did hati win their independence in 1804 france napoleon vs Russia
Congress of Vienna and conservative retrenchment tried to get france stable again
Congress of Vienna Britian, Prussia, Russia, Austria, met in Vienna goals: 1. rebuild europes borders, and suppress any revolutions result: holy alliance
National reform and revolution popular support for national self- determination and democratic reforms grew throught Europe
democratic reforms US war of 1812- America vs britian britian (corn laws)- increased tax on grain enqouraged people to vote revolutions in - France Prussia and Austria
First industrial revolution 1760-1851
Causes of indusrial revolution 1. population growth 2. agriculture revolution 3. trade and invenstors
where does industrial revolution start and why England/ britian economically strong, navy, natural resourses, fluid social structure
What does the war of 1812 force America to do be more self-efficient and speeds up industilization
mass production of pottery imported or handmade in china, aristocrats could buy, enlgih dmenad high for tea cups etc
Mass production in cotton industries high demand English revolutionized spinning thread (spinning jenny, water frame,,mule
what crop became Americas most valuable in 1820 as exports to Europe cotton
Coke/puddling extracting carbon from ash to make steel
Interchangeable parts in 1800s saved money for fierarms, edquiment
what was the most significant invention in the first industrial revoultuion steam eengine
Thomas newcome and james watt Thomas made to take out water from coal mines james improves and manufacture
what invention helps Europeans enter Africa steam engine
railroads equal people and food
railway mania britian 1825-1845 us 1840-1850
railways triggered iron and coal industry in france beligum the rhor and silesa
Impact of industrial revolution 1. rapid growth (less farmers, cant support everyone) 2, megalopisis ( moving into the city)
Textile mills in Europe and us affected family life
Labor union people at a job contribute part of their dsalar to be used to support them govermently
biggest imigrants for cheap labor in Europe and Americas irish
American and irsish women start to work in textiles for demand of coton
1808 trans atlantc slave trade is illegal so breed to get slaves
Lazzie Faire made by adam smith believes that in business there should be not politiocal intruding
invisible hand theory things will happen on there own
Thomas Malthus and David ricardo believe world is to over crowed wants a natural disaster
Positivism theory that science and technology should solve every prob made by simon
utopian socities socalist societys (equality) Charles fourier amd Robert ownen
Latin American revolution contolled mostly by spnish Portugal controls brazil
who starts the revolutions creols ( whote European born descent) because of high taxes, imperial monopolies, and englihtment
social structure in latin America penisularies, creols, mezitos/mulato, amerdians
What royal familt fleed to brazil Portuguese napoleaon took over Portugal and spain
Junata central centralized spef=cific to a colonial region
Majority of residents in atin America wanted want local juntas for independence like Venezuela, mexico, and boliva overthrew and started independent movements
what state in LA was first to gain independence Venezuela
what did the Spanish offer the slaves if the fought they would be free
Simon Bolivar Helped venezula, allies ( creols, natives) wanted a confederation ( didn't work)
San martin leads argentina to independence (rio de plata) met in Bolivia for confederation
Gran Colombia confederation formed split up because of regionalism peru was first to leave
Mexico was spains richest and most populous country, revolution led by priest Miguel hildago but agustin ends revolution
United provience of central America Mexico Central American countries decleared independence from spain and declared from this to
Brasil Jhon king of Portugal ruled from afar but son pedro started to rule bringing the enlighment and making a independent constiunal monarchy ( to liberal)
how was brazil diff than other Spanish colonies invlolved no bloodshed
Andrew Jackson president of NA abused power
what coutnries started contuialism Leaders in USA and La
what did latin Americas inexperience cause rebeliions, church and military having more power
Personalist leader populist a person who comes from humble beginnings once they earn power undermine constitution and rule like a dictator
What countries was this useful for the LA countries military leaders were able to use it a s a foundation to the gov
why were there more populous leaders in LA Napoleans conquering in Europe allowed them to make caudillos ( populous leaders)
The weak central gov in the LA led to sectionalism
Succenonist movements political separation causing a new nation
why did the confederacy fail the country is to young
What four countriers had regional power 1. us 2. mexico 3.argentina 4. chile
Spanish American war spain vs USA US defeasta and takes all soanish territories
French invasion on mexico tried to conquer were pushed out
US VS Mexico 1848 annexation new country under new American gov
Chile peru vs Bolivia
argentina vs brazil all over urugay
What countries increased number of slaves after it was illegal brasil and cuba
Emacation procomation removing of slaves in the USA south suppored by women and African
13 ammenment ablosihed slavery law
what country was the last to abolish slavery brazil
suffrage right to vote ( women )
where did womens movments progress us, Canada and latin America
what countries were as industrialized as W. Europe USA, Argentina and Canada
mining booms Europe and USA mined in La creation a depending in a foregin country
neocolonialism one country depends on another
Why did LA fall behind dependency on exports weak gov , neocolonialism, civil war,
what do liberal want secular (spration of gov and church) free trade protection of property
capitalism factors of production no interrupted by gov
socialism production shared with gov
communism extereme form of socialism shuts gap between rich and poor
where did Africans started migrate to s. Africa ruled by the shaka
west Africa isalm purity, securism of women, jihads ( religious wars to spread islam) sokot caliphate ( ruler)
Who was the ruler an father of Egyptian modernization muhammed ali
how id he modernize Egypt raised military strength by making Egyptian pemuhammed asent work to cultivate cotton and other crops for export
who took over Egypt after ismail his grandson
how did he change Egypt focused on wezteranization, funded his projects by borrowing money from france and endland (debt)
what happened to Egypt after cotton collapse since they couldn't repay debt French and England took over
What happened to Egypt in the mid to late century ethopian kings took back Egypt bought Europe weapeons and began to manufacture them
where di france take over in Egypt Algeria
What did European settlers taske possession of in Egypt oil and farmland
peaceful expeditions in egypt done by England in the congo, zambwei and the nile done by livingstone
Whats imperialism when a stronger country takes over a ssmaller one
whats a secondary empier dependent on the west for the tech and exports
Legtimate trade gold, palm oil (lotion,soap) jaja got rich off this
Supression of slave trade across the atlantic lead to western cultural influence missionaries African slaves wanted to ccome back to Liberia
what are the secondary empiers east Africa,
where are the slaves now supplied from North America and the Middle east new ports of slaves
Zanzibar Island east African slaves plantations and ivory trade
Who is ruling India by the 18 century Mughal empier
whos Nawab becomes local governer of independent state
who are the company men est trading ports and hired spoys ( indian soilders) for protection
Wht did the british east indian company do to india oushed france out and made the Mughal recognize them as the Bombay Presidency
British Raj British Indian company administrative and social reform supported indian social and religious caste but were faking it
What gov did the English make in India they used the sepoy military power that disarmed warriors Christian memories private land ownership traditional rituals
what did british political and economical influence do benifited indian cities but ruined the poor causing the collapse of the textile industry
SEPOY REBELLION Cause the sepoy religion was being undermined by the british east indian company 1. movment of si=oilders 2.banning sati (letting women remarry) 3. Rubber casing had pig fat
SEPOY REBELIION Effect British east Indian company company are banned from India and British gov (constitutional) will take over all colonies
India in 1857-58 british eliminated the last traces of the Mughal and company rule but keep princes and luxury
How do they control from afar Indian civil services ( controls politics and economic staus)
Faliure of the 1857 rebellion led to a new way fro Indians to achieve a control of dynasty pan ( indian nationalist movement)
Rammohan Roy brahmo snaj movement higher caste accepts british culture more than lower class
What did they want to ban or fix western secular values, reform traditional abuse of women, wetersn nationalism
What religion is being permoted by britian hindus not muslims
First Indian National Congress in 1895 to get away from british working with parliament to get rights national unity civil service
What imperaslism 1. Colony 2.Protectorate 3.Sphere of influence 4. Economic
1. Colony Aggressive ex: spain ruling cuba through leader
2.Protectoracte Politically control another country
3.Sphere of influence no political control only interested in resources
4. Economic Company interested in a countrys resources
what allowed Brithish to expand in SA, SE Asia, and the Carribea French, Dutch, Napoleonic war were defeatded
Cape colony britians pit stop ( sphere of influence)
Afrikaners white europeaners in Soth Africa
Great Trek 1836-1839 Afrikaners defeated the Zulu and took over South Africa
How did the expnaison help britian more british ports means cheaper trade exports technological advances
Austraila abrognies was used as convict island but disocered gold
New Zealand maoris discovered farmland \ maoris defeated
where was the first women suffrage ` Australia in 1894
what was the longest muslim empire ottoman empire 1300-1922
1798 in Egypt napoleon invaded Egypt and defeated mamuluke
who ruled Egypt first napoleon then he returned back and gsve it to muhammed ali
syraim Ibrahim ( muhammeds sone) invaded Syria and started reform
how long did ali rule till 1840
SULTAN SELIM III introuduced European reform ( ottoman) intro: military,central gov, taxation lend tenture reform led oppostions from jannisarries
Serbian peasents helped defeat the jannasaries uprising then went one to make Serbia a independent state from ottoman
Why were the janissaries upset the janniseries had an economic privilege with reform they didn't have it
why did the ulma distrust selim reform secularism (ruining of his culture)
when did Greece earn independence 1829
who where greeces alies England, France, Russia
Greece independence meant what a triumph for Europe
Sultant Mahmus II reform rurns aggressive under him uses popular outrage in his reform
What does Mahmus change new army, elimination of jenassaries, reduction of religious elites
Tanzimat reforms ottoman wezetrenzation French and german military general edu (French, less muslim schools) foreign instructors Language- French
Adbul Mejid 1839 successor of Mahmud makes drastic secular reform gives Christians high political power
How did the reform change the women in ottoman gave up inheritance to husbands had completion with tech
The Crimean war 1853-1856 Russia vs ottoman
How did Europeans feel about the war they didn't know if the were going to help or destroy the ottoman they chose the ottoman to help
What lead to the war Russian expansion to the south
who all=ied with ottoman and where enemies of the Russia great britian , and france
what was the results of the Crimean war ottoman won Russia lost xpansion blocked
what were the thw significant changes (genarlly Russia gov was weak French and English prop ganda lead to turk-french unity
Wrfare in the Crimean war modernized percussion caps, and breech loading, machine guns, trench
Ottoman changes continuation of European modle urbanization and wage labor classes
ottoman probs foreign loan and debt
in the 1860-70s alloeing men to vote made muslims not feel like a muslim society so mulims were hostile with Christians in the ottoman territories in Armenia ( Christian) and middle east
Young ottoman liberal to seculoarism (not friends with Christians) constiounalism liberal reform wanted to make there own state ( turkey)
In 1876 a constitution was granted but a coup placed a more traditional ruler on throne
result of event in 1876 ottoman will be weak until 1970 the diminish westernization causes internal conflict dosent allow full reform
How was Russia before 1700s 3% lived in cities very slow for developing factories and transportation
what prevented Russia from modernizing fear of change in politiocs Europeans feared Russians
Chinese empieres in order shang, Zhou, quin, han, sui, tang, song, uayn, ming, and quing
which of the Chinese empires were Mughal uyan
Russia expansion in the 19 century lead conflict with china, japan, ottoman, and iran
what country interfered with Russia to not get asia England
how long has Europeans been in contact with Russia since late 1600s great embassy
Russias Penalties with Crimean war failure to win, treaty- Russians are forced to gove muslims in Russia rights
who really opposed the modernization wealthy
positive impact on Russia Developed culotral relations with Europe and ottoman will lose Europe support
How was china during Ming great probs: didn't associate with other countries so they couldn't trade or moderninize
How did china change with quing when conqured in 1600s they restored peace and promoted expansion of agriculture and economy so population doubles
population strain itinerate farmlands, labors and merchnats
discontent in quing push out minorities corrupt gov ( cantan system) foreign merchnats (believed gov worked with them) manifested in rebellions
Cantan system port in china used to sell for foreginers and was restricted
Whit loutus rebellion ( 1794-1804) minority believed that quing must be destroyed and put back to ming so Buddha can come
Opium drug
Opium war 1839-1844 qin did not take british seriously or the growth of the opium trade propagated in china banned in 1839
who did the british sell opium to from india to Chinese
result of opium war british refused to stop ended with the treaty of nanking ( British don't have to go threw cantan can trade anywhere in china
The taiping rebellion poor farmers rebellion 1850-1864
Guangxi providence (taiping rebellion biggest rebellion poor farmers, ethnic division ( Hakka loest)
Hevanly kingdom of great peace Hong Xiuqan ( name of the rebeliion) : canton Hong thought he was jesus brother
Hong captured what Nanjing in 1853 buggest mechanized area of china
What happened to china fell in alliance with French and british
Legacy depopulation, mass destruction
self strengthing lead to the tongzhi restoration ( reform) modeled after the USA
Aristocrats in china will lend money for reform but theres to much to fix so go in debt with French and china
what happens to quing at the end cant control its decentralization
New imperalsim 1869-1914
how was the old imperialism based on colonies, political ruling
what does new imperialism do territorial conquest for reorganization of economy
Africa had what kind of imperaslism direct, forcefully colonies
Latin America had what kind of imperialism indirect, manupilation
Political motives national reputation Colonial agents take over
Cultral motives not as aggressive, missionary worked (believed that Europeans and americans were superior)
young men desire to explore led to safaris extension of nationalism ( shared with poor)
economical motives Industrilaization ( demand for products by manupliating)
Tools of imperialism in Europe and Americas steamships, suez canal, submarine cables quinne (vaccine for malaria)Africa
if you were industrialized what were the benefits better gov and military
Colonalism is the system of administrating and exploting colonies for the benift of the home country helps in the 1880s
women were not involved in imperalsim. When women came to the colonies, racial segregation increased why ? they want to keep the white race pure
Scramble for Africa direct imperialism (colonies)
other word for indirect imperialism protectorate
How long did france and britian rule Egypt because of debt 70 years made protectorate (England did)
western vs islam didn't accept muslims
King leoplad II of Belgium first colony to be under new imperialism conqured congo
France got what part of Africa northern bank
Berlin conference 1885-1886 organized what countries get what part of Africa
west Africa had trade networks
equilateral Africa has cash crops
Why was south Africa so wanted great soil, great pit stop for travelers/ port, gold mines, dimaodnds
who were the africaners dutch, german, francce
English defeated who and won what defeast Zulu and Xhosa and won south Africa
cecil Rhodes uses brithis south African company to take over central Africa
when was british control consolidated they defeated the Afrikaners in the South African War 1899-1902
1910 union of south Africa was created with the Afrikaners ruling gov and established segregation (apartheid)
cultural responses in Africa missionaries shared pratical skills islam spread due to colonization
Central asia was taken over by Russia over Kazhaks land had little effect on people
Siam (Thiland) became independent 1. king wezternizede 2.buffer for britian and france
when was hawii annexed 1898 economic imperialism
Spanish American war spain vs usa
results of Spanish American war us wins and get some Spanish territory
phillipenes annexed in 1898
Aguinaldo led rebellion for phillipeans againt us but loses
Latin American imperialism their natural resources made them a target for free trade imperialism (economic )
who finaced railroads English and usa
what other countries did usa gain from Spanish American war Puerto rico, and cuba becomes indirect
Monroe Doctrine doc that states to keep Europeans out of latin America but let usa
What encouraged the repayment of loans in carribean military intervention
what carribean countries did usa own cuba, Dominican republic, nicuagra, hinders, hait, panama canal
Panama canal 1903 caused by imperalsim us gives them weapons to fight Colombia so they can build
what was an environmental affect for everything deforestation
1850-1914 2nd industrial revolution
what were railroads used for in non industrial areas business or politics
how did steamships help increased speed by adding iron steel propellers and enging line
19the century increase in steel and use of chemical
alfered nobels invention of dynamite
industrial chemistry Germany
1870s investors devised mechanical energy to light
what was light used for lamps, motors,cars
1850 world trade freight cost dropped from 50 % to 95 %
Great prosperity to usa and w,europe but vulenarble to business cycle
how were non industrial countries involved in the world trade depended on for raw materials exports
until world was 1914 exports from tropical areas were expensive
population increase 20% to 30% reason: better nutrient, improved crops, refigration, can foods
what 3 countries population grew the most Europe, usa, and japan
sprate sphere male and women have their own responsibiltys
Vicortian age meant change for women
how did women change increase in cleanliness raising children supporting husbands teachers suffrage movement
working class women lives of pain long hours, physical labor, sexual abuse, working in the factories
Karl mark and Fiedrich Engles german and started communism
communism depends on colletvation of labor and good to mequal the classes
what books did they write communist manifesto and das capital causes rivalry between rich and poor
19 century workers white males in eurpe and usa could vote
where women involved in radical movments no
what was the elemnt to crating national unity language
what country couldn't make a national unity Austria hungary to many ethics
Italy has to political state in 1800s unification happens through strong indivduals to fight other countries ( austrains)
who dosent agree with the unification of Italy the pope
Germany was dived between Prussia and Austria
who took forth the unification of Germany Prussia
franco- Prussia war franco hate the French
dominial groups in countries use nationalism to justify the imposition of its religion and language
Socail Darwisim derived from Charles Darwin deals with darwism
Otto von Bismar Prussian forged a loose coalition with Austria and hungry and Russia
Wilhelm II german emperor emphazies colonization
Japn joins great powers 1865-1905
Ci Xi empress of china, trys to westernize but is not successful
Tokugawa leader of japans wezernizes and is successful
Matthew C perry arrived in jpan with a fleet of steam warships and demands for Japanese to open ports and they do
Meiji Olgarchs ruling name for tokugawata
meiji westernization history of adaption raised money by selling land used Germany as a modle for gov
why are the Japanese successful homogenous
What gov do they make authoritarian Constiutional Monarchy
sphere of influence korea,china, and Manchuria
Hunderd day reform china trys to catch up with japan japan wins in 1894
japans defeats Russia 1905
japan annexed korea 1910
Created by: BB2424