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WH: Ch 9


Gilded Age Mark Twain's description of cities during the Industrial Age
Bessemer Process Process developed for making light weight steel; led to building skyscrapers
United States Leading industrial nation
Faraday Invented the dynamo
Thomas Edison Invented first useable lightbulb
Interchangeable parts identical components (pieces) that could be used in place of one another; led to assembly line and mass production
Assembly line workers add parts to a product that move along a conveyor belt
Railroad this innovation led to a spiral of growth
Karl Benz this inventor received a patent for the first automobile
Nicolas Otto Inventor of the internal combustion engine (led to invention of automobile and airplane)
Henry Ford Inventor who used the assembly line to mass produce automobiles
Wright Brothers These men were responsible for first sustainable flight
Samuel Morse Inventor of the telegraph
Alexander Graham Bell Inventor of the telephone
Marconi Inventor of the radio
Corporations business that is owned by many investors who buy shares of stock; liability is limited to amount invested
Stock shares of ownership in a company
Monopoly having complete control of goods or services in order to eliminate competition and set prices
Trust used by Robber Barons to avoid government regulations; companies assign stock to a board of trustees
Rockefeller Tycoon who owned Standard Oil Company
Cartel businesses who make the same product agree to limit production and set prices
Captain of Industry capitalists and tycoons who served the nation and provided jobs (Andrew Carnegie)
Robber Baron capitalists and tycoons who were known for being greedy and swindling the poor (Rockefeller)
Death rate number of deaths per thousand per year; drop in deathrate led to population increase
Germ theory Microbes cause disease
Louis Pasteur Created a vaccine for rabies and anthrax; pasteurized (heated) milk to kill microbes
Koch Scientist who identified the bacteria that caused tuberculosis
Urban renewal rebuilding the poor areas (slums, tenements) of a city
Suburbs better neighborhoods on the outskirts of a city; usually middle class who could afford transportation
Tenements urban apartments near the center of cities where the factory workers (poor) lived
Skyscraper 10+ story building, first designed by Louis Sullivan
Jacob Riis Muckraker who wrote How the Other Half Lives; exposed the reality of the slums
Labor unions Worker groups who used collective bargaining, strikes to achieve working conditions and wage increases
Collective bargaining workers negotiate with owners (management) as a group for wage increases and improved working conditions
Strike Work stoppage by labor unions
Government regulations laws created by the government to oversee activites of businesses (trusts, cartels, etc)
Temperance Social reform movement to prohibit the manufacture, sale of alcohol
Suffragettes Reformers who worked for women's right to vote
Leading suffragettes Elizabeth Cady Stanton ; Susan b Anthony
Mendeleyev Scientist who developed the periodic table
Darwin Scientist who developed theory of natural selection which led to idea of survival of the fittest
Social Darwinism those who succeed (in business, war, etc) are more fit and therefore are superior (led to racism and descrimination)
Romanticism cultural movement as a reaction to the Enlightenment (reason) that included simple, direct language, intense feelings and glorification of nature
Wordsworth, Lord Byron, Goethe Leading poets of romanticism
Victor Hugo Romantic novelist who wrote Hunchback of Notre Dame (would move to Realism)
Gothic style of the medieval period
Beethoven German Romantic composer who was first to take advantage of an orchestra
Realism cultural movement that attempted to show the world as it really is, without sentiment
Charles Dickens English novelist who portrayed life in slums; wrote Oliver Twist
Hugo wrote Les Miserables (realism)
Gustave Courbet painter of Realism (THe Stone Breakers)
Louis Daguerre inventor of first successful photography
Brady photographer of US Civil War
Impressionism group of painters who wished to capture first impressions of a scene or object
Monet leading Impressionist painter
Vincent Van Gogh postimpressionist painter
Gauguin postimpressionist whose style reflected primitive folk art
Created by: dotsspots