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FCSDGbl2-Beyond WW2

Beyond WW2 topics

TermDefinition
Nuremburg Trials (1945-1949) trials in which an Allied military tribunal tried several dozen top Nazi & military officials; many were executed for war crimes
Robert H. Jackson Lawyer from Jamestown, NY; Lead prosecutor for the Nuremberg Trials
Human Rights basic rights to which every person is entitled simply by the fact that they are a human being
Universal Declaration of Human Rights 30 basic human rights written in a document created by the United Nations in 1948
United Nations international organization formed in 1945 to maintain world peace & encourage cooperation among nations
Cold War era of high tension & bitter rivalry between the US & Soviet Union in the decades following WWII
Yalta Conference (February 1945) a meeting between FDR, Churchill & Stalin to reach an agreement on what to do with Germany after WWII
Potsdam Conference (1945) a meeting of Allied leaders in the German city of Potsdam to address issues about the post-WWII Europe
Division of Germany after WWII, split into 4 sectors held by France, Great Britain, Soviet Union and United States
Gen. Douglas MacArthur American general; commanded US troops in the SW Pacific during WWII and administered Japan after the war ended
Robert Oppenheimer scientist responsible for the development of the atom bomb
Containment US policy adopted in the 1940s to stop the spread of communism by providing economic & military aid to countries opposing the Soviets
Marshall Plan plan for the economic reconstruction of Europe after WWII
Truman Doctrine (1947) US President Truman's pledge to provide economic & military aid to countries threatened by communism
Berlin Airlift (1948-1949) a program in which the US & Britain shipped supplies by air to West Berlin during the Soviet blockade of all routes to the city
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization; a defensive military alliance of twelve Western nations formed in 1949
Warsaw Pact military alliance of the Soviet-dominated countries of Eastern Europe, established in 1955
Eva & Juan Peron wife & President of Argentina from 1946-1955 & 1973-1974; rose to power following a military coup d'etat & was a supporter of the rights of the people
4 Worlds concept of levels of development of countries 1 = developed, 2 = developed but improvements possible, 3 = poor economy, medical care, education , 4 = extremely poor
Third World old term for developing nations
Developing Nations new term for 3rd World countries
LDCs (Less Developed Countries) newer term for developing countries
Problems for Developing Nations financial/economic, education, medical care, housing
Green Revolution a significant increase in agricultural productivity resulting from the introduction of high-yield varieties of grains, the use of pesticides, & improved management techniques
Che Guevara Argentinean revolutionary leader; an aide to Fidel Castro during the Cuban revolution
Fulgencio Batista retired Cuban general; seized power in 1952; fled when Castro led revolt in 1959
Fidel Castro Communist political leader of Cuba; helped overthrow the Cuban government in 1959 & seized control of the country, exercising total control of the government & economy
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) confrontation between the US & the Soviet Union over Soviet missiles in Cuba
Sandinistas Marxist group who led the revolution against the dictator of Nicaragua & then rulled the country fro 1979-1990
Mikhail Gorbachev Russian politician; was the last president of the Soviet Union before the country's collapse in 1991
Chernobyl catastrophic nuclear power plant accident (4/26/86) in Ukraine; explosion & fire released large quantities of radioactive particles into the atmosphere, which spread over much of the west
Fall of Berlin Wall 1989, symbolic of the fall of Communism
Mao Zedong Leader of the Chinese Communists; led a successful revolution & established a Communist government in China in 1949
Long March (1934) the 6000-mile journey made by Communist Chinese to escape Nationalist troops
Chaing Kai-shek Chinese Nationalist; battles Chinese Communists lead by Mao in1949; retreated to Taiwan
Great Leap Forward (1958) Mao Zedong's second Five-year Plan for China; goal was to speed progress
Cultural Revolution the violent attempt at social change in China launched by Mao Zedong in 1966
Red Guards group of young men in China who carried out the work of the Cultural Revolution; they roamed the cities & villages, identifying possible opposition to Mao Zedong's leadership
Deng Xiaoping Chinese revolutionary & government leader; after a struggle for power following Mao's death, he took power in 1981 & made far-reaching reforms in the Chinese economy
Four Modernizations goals set forth by Zhou Enlai in 1963, and enacted by Deng Xiaoping from 1978, to strengthen the fields of agriculture, industry, national defense, and science and technology in China (5th Modernization - Democracy - caused controversy)
Tiananmen Square Massacre violent suppression by the Chinese communist government of a large prodemocracy protest in Beijing's central square in 1989
Created by: fcsdklw