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WH 10: Unit 10

World War II

TermDefinition
Radical Nationalism Extreme love for one's country more than just for a leader as well as the belief that your country is the best and should be defended to the death. Countries that believed in this built large armies and felt unified by this idea
Failures of the Treaty of Versailles The treaty included the war-guilt clause, reparations, and military limits on Germany which were overly punitive and built hatred and resentment in the hearts of the German people
War-Guilt Clause Part of the Treaty of Versailles that placed complete blame for WWI on Germany for WWI
$33 Billion in reparations Payments that Germany was supposed to make to the Allies after WWI, it was meant to punish Germany
Weaknesses of the League of Nations The U.S. did not join the organization, the League didn't have its own army, and could not enforce its decisions
Isolationism Citizens and their governments did not want to get involved and create relationships with other countries for fear of getting dragged into another conflict.
Pacificsm The belief that disputes between nations should be settled peacefully
Appeasement Giving in to an aggressive country's demands in order to avoid going to war. It was the policy of Great Britain and France during the Interwar period to appease Hitler.
Aggression Forceful or attacking behavior by one country towards another country
Non-Aggression Pact (between Germany and U.S.S.R.) This agreement was signed between Germany and the Soviet Union and it made sure that they would not harm each other. It gave Hitler the ability to attack Poland because he knew that the Soviet Union would not attack him.
Adolf Hitler Leader of Germany in 1933. He created a fascist totalitarian government that he called the Third Reich. He believed that Germany needed more living space, and believed in Anti-Semitism.
Third Reich Hitler's government from 1933-1945
Lebensraum Living space for Germany
Anti-Semitism Discrimination against the Jews
Hirohito The emperor of Japan who was mostly just a figurehead leader.
Hideki Tojo Japanese military general who helped craft the Japanese expansion campaign. He and the military were really the ones controlling Japan
Joseph Stalin Leader of the communist Soviet Union, he wanted to increase the power of the U.S.S.R.. Not officially a part of the Axis powers but he did have a non-aggression pact with Hitler
Charles de Gaulle Leader of France during WWII. He fought tirelessly to keep France free of the Nazis and when France falls he helps design the invasion of France from Great Britain.
Winston Churchill Prime Minister of Great Britain during WWII. Known for his rousing speeches and his honesty.
Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) President of the United States at the outbreak of WWII. He would die in office before the war would end.
George Marshall One of President Roosevelt's closest advisers, who designed a plan after WWII to help rebuild Europe
Harry S. Truman Vice-President of the United States at the beginning of WWII he would become President after FDR's death, he would make the controversial decisions to use nuclear weapons on Japan
Douglas MacArthur Leading American general in the war in the Pacific. Would also lead American forces in the Korean War.
Dwight D. Eisenhower American general during WWII who was put in charge of all Allied forces during the war. He planned the D-Day invasion of France.
Blitzkrieg Means "lightening war" a strategy of war that Germany used at the start of WWII, that was built on surprise and speed. Basically overwhelm the country so you can take it over quickly. It used light tank divisions along with air-support.
European Front (European Theater) All WWII battles in Western Europe and the Soviet Union
African Front (African Theater) All WWII battles in North Africa
Pacific Front (Pacific Theater) All WWII battles in the Pacific Ocean, China, Japan, Korea, and the islands
German Invasion of Poland in September 1939 The event that began WWII. Germany invaded Poland and 3 days later Great Britain and France declared war on Germany
Allied Powers in 1939 Great Britain and France
Axis Powers in 1939 Germany, Italy, & Japan
Fall of France (1940) A devastating loss to the allies when France, one of the two allies is taken over by Germany in less than a month. Leaves Great Britain as the only Ally in the war
Allied Powers after the Fall of France Great Britain
Axis Powers after the Fall of France Germany, Italy, & Japan
Battle of Britain Hitler's air assault against Great Britain. The German air force known as the Luftwaffe fought the British Royal Air Force. They bombed cities and civilian areas of Great Britain and yet Great Britain fought on.
Enigma German code writing machine. The British were able to smuggle one of these machines out of Germany and were able to use it to translate German messages that were intercepted. Gave the British quite an advantage
Suez Canal Canal that linked the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. Owned and operated by the British along with Egypt, Mussolini the dictator of Italy tried to gain control of this during WWII but were unprepared for British resistance.
Operation Barbarossa The name of Hitler's attack on the Soviet Union. What historians refer to as Hitler's dumbest decision. Forces him to fight on two fronts. Brings the Soviet Union into the war as an ally. Also Hitler was unprepared for the harsh conditions in Russia.
Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941 the Japanese air force attacked the U.S. navy at Pearl Harbor Hawaii. Known as the "Date that will live in infamy" according to Roosevelt this brought the U.S. into WWII on the side of the Allies
Allied Powers after attack on Pearl Harbor Great Britain, Soviet Union, & the U.S.
Axis Powers after attack on Pearl Harbor Germany, Italy, and Japan
D-Day (invasion of Europe) D-Day was the Allied plan to invade Europe. Took place on the beaches of Normandy, France. Allied troops pushed the Germans back through France but at a huge cost in terms of lives on both sides. Led by U.S. general Dwight D. Eisenhower.
Battle of Midway (turning point battle) Turning point battle in the Pacific Theater of war. It was a major U.S. victory in which the U.S. crippled the Japanese fleet by destroying all four of their air craft carriers
Island Hopping The U.S. strategy in the Pacific Theater, it was a way of taking over the various islands in order to attack Japan
Operation Torch Allied forces led by the U.S. troops pushed through North Africa and up through Italy
Battle of Stalingrad (turning point battle) Turning point battle in Russia, in which the Soviet troops held off German troops for over 6 months. The Germans unprepared for the harsh winter conditions eventually surrenders 90,000 troops. It is the end of Hitler's movement East.
July of 1944 Italy Surrenders Allied forces took control of Italy in July of 1944. Italy goes down in history as the first of the Axis powers to surrender.
Axis powers after Italian surrender Germany & Japan
Allied powers after Italian surrender Great Britain, France (liberated in D-Day), Soviet Union, & U.S.
George Patton American General famous for pushing the 'Third Army' throughout France and into Germany. He did impossible things and won impossible battles.
Battle of the Bulge (turning point battle) Last German offensive in WWII, the loss of this battle forces the Germans to continually retreat back to Berlin
V-E Day May 8th, 1945 Victory in Europe day, May 8th, 1945 takes place when German surrenders
Axis Powers after German surrender in May 1945 Japan
Allied Powers after German surrender in May 1945 Great Britain, France (liberated in D-Day), Soviet Union, & U.S.
Hiroshima and Nagasaki In an effort to save American lives, President Harry Truman authorized the dropping of atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This forced the Japanese to surrender on September 2, 1945.
Allied Powers after Operation Barbarossa Great Britain & the Soviet Union
Axis Powers after Operation Barbarossa Germany, Italy, & Japan
Holocaust German genocide during WWII most specifically targeting Jews
Genocide The systematic and purposeful destruction of a racial, political, religious, or cultural group
Kristallnacht "Night of the Broken Glass", the first aggression in Germany against Jewish homes, businesses, and synagogues. Many Jews tried to immigrate to other countries after this night but most were unable to gain entry to new countries.
Ghettos When immigration failed as a solution to the "Jewish Problem" he then separated the Jews and forced them to live in designated areas and cities known as ghettos. These cities were severely overcrowded.
"Final Solution" When the "ghettos" weren't killing Jews fast enough from starvation and disease Hitler's new plan became known as the "Final Solution", it was the systematic killing of the Jews. The use of concentration camps marks the "final solution"
Gas Chambers Located in Concentration Camps these chambers were designed to kill 6,000 human beings a day. The estimate is that 6 million Jews alone were killed in the Holocaust.
Armenian Genocide Genocide of the Armenians a minority group in the old Ottoman Empire by the Ottoman Turks.
Pol Pot Group in Cambodia who committed genocide by killing Cambodians when they wouldn't work on huge government farms.
Cambodian Genocide Genocide in Cambodia where the Cambodians were attacked by the Communist government leaders because they refused to work on huge government farms and it was carried out by the Pol Pot.
Tutsi Minority Had been in power in Rwanda for decades. But when the Hutus took power they began to exterminate the Tutsi minority in Rwanda
Hutu Majority Had been out of power for decades even though they were the majority. So when they took over they began to systematically kill all of the Tutsis.
Rwanda Small country in Central Africa famous for the Rwandan genocide which occurred in 1994. The Hutus carried out the genocide against the Tutsis.
Marshall Plan A plan to help rebuild Europe after WWII
United Nations An organization built after WWII to try to maintain post-war peace. Still exists today.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights A declaration passed by the United Nations which declared the rights to which all human beings are entitled.
Created by: thompsonce