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Unit 6 Vocabulary

Napoleonic Wars/ Political Unification of Italy and Germany

1. Napoleon Bonaparte French general who after a coup d'etat led France. He tried unsuccessfully to take over Europe, placing it under French domination and he put in place the Napoleonic Code of laws as well as educational reforms
2. Coup an overthrow of the government
3. Napoleon’s Education Reforms He saw the importance of education in producing citizens capable of filling positions in his government and military. Although he did not create a system of mass education, education was more available to the middle class than it ever had been before.
4. Napoleonic Code made the laws understandable to all Frenchmen. The law was based on reason and that all men were equal before the law. It ensured individual rights and the security of property. Was pro-business, especially on contracts; it discriminated against women.
5. Battle of Waterloo a Belgian town where Napoleon was finally defeated. Napoleon gave up his throne and was sent away to an island in the Atlantic Ocean where he died in 1821.
6. Congress of Vienna of 1815-a meeting of victorious powers after Napoleon’s defeat.Attempted to restore Europe as it had been before the French Revolution and Napoleonic conquests and whether to keep Napoleon’s reforms or undo many of them and how to redraw the map of Europe
7. Metternich The key person of the Congress of Vienna was the Austrian foreign minister, Metternich.
8. 3 Goals of the Congress of Vienna First, to make sure that the French would not attack another country again. Second, a balance of power in which no one nation was too strong. Third, put kings back in charge of the countries from which they had been removed (restoration of monarchies).
9. Balance of Power No one nation is too strong. Power is balanced between countries.
10. Restoration of the Monarchies to put kings back in charge of the countries from which they had been removed
11. Conservatism characterized by a desire for little or no change, or a return to old values. Most conservatives were usually wealthy property owners and nobility. They argued for protecting the traditional monarchies of Europe, they did not like change.
12. Liberalism characterized by change. Most liberals were middle-class business leaders and merchants. They wanted to give more power to elected parliaments (legislative government bodies), but believed only the educated and land owners would votes.
13. Nationalism Strives for independence and the interests and domination of a nation and expresses his love or concern for the country in an active political way. Most nationalists assume that their country is better than any other.
14. Patriotism pertains to the love for a nation, with more emphasis on values and beliefs. Most patriots express the emotion of love towards their country in a passive way.
15. Revolutions of the 1830’s After the success of the Greeks in gaining independence from the Ottomans, other European nations unsuccessfully struggled for independence ( Poland, Belgium, and Italy).
16. Revolutions of 1848 In 1848 uprisings erupted throughout Europe. Nationalistic uprisings broke out in Austria, Budapest, Hungary, Czechoslovakia. Unfortunately,one country after another failed to unite their nations and conservatives regained their power.
17. Camillo di Cavour He was the chief minister of the Italian king of the northern Italian state of Piedmont-Sardinia, who worked to expand the king’s control over other areas of northern Italy. He successfully unified all of Italy by 1870 with the help of Garilbaldi.
18. Giuseppe Garibaldi He was a nationalistic leader who led an army of patriots “red shirts” that won control of much of southern Italy and then turned the area over to Cavour under control of northern Italian king.
19. Italy By 1870, the king completed the uniting of what became known as Italy. The Papal States (including Rome) were the last to join Italy.
20. Otto von Bismarck worked to create a new confederation-coalition of German states that Prussia controlled. He was supported by wealthy landowners and was called the “Iron Chancellor” of Prussia.
21. Realpolitik Von Bismark's actions reflected the Machiavellian "Realpolitik" belief, which justifies all means to achieve and hold power
22. Franco-Prussian War 1860's land war that proved the final step in the German unification process. In order to win the loyalty of German areas in the Austrian and Austria-Hungarian south, Bismarck purposefully angered a weak France so that it would declare war on Prussia .
23. Kaiser German leadership title meaning emperor. The King of Prussia was named the first kaiser of the new united German nation-state, Germany.
Created by: Room 211