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Unit 5 Vocabulary


1. French Revolution refers to the time in French history between 1789 and 1799 when the government and ideas about how France should be ruled changed many times
2. American Revolution Americans put into practice the ideas of the Enlightenment by fighting against the corrupt British or English rule during this period from 1775-1783; French helped American colonists against the British
3. First Estate French societal and political division or estate consisting of the Roman Catholic high clergy or religious persons.
4. Second Estate French societal and political division or estate consisting of nobles.
5. Third Estate French societal and political division or estate consisting of mostly well-off merchants and skilled workers who lacked the status of nobles, city workers, peasants or farm workers, and the lower clergy such as local priests or ministers.
6. Inflation the rise in the price of goods even though the value of your money does not go up
7. King Louis XVI King of France who was faced with a failing economy, war debt and an increasingly powerful Estates-General. Was guillotined during the French Revolution.
8. Queen Marie Antoinette Austrian Wife of King Louis XVI who was not a well-liked queen
9. Estates General the legislative ruling body of France consisting of the three estates who each had one vote
10. National Assembly what the Third Estate called itself after it separated from the Estates General in June 1789. Beginning of representative government in Frnace
11. Declaration of the Rights of Man the French equivalent to the US Declaration of Independence. It's a statement of general principals and defines individual and collective rights
12. Storming of the Bastille, July 14, 1789 On July 14, 1789, an angry crowd stormed the Bastille, a Paris prison, and got gunpowder for their weapons in order to defend the city. French Independence Day today.
13. Guillotine Beheading machine used during the Reign of Terror
14. Maximilien Robespierre a powerful radical, became leader of France. He headed the Committee of Public Safety. It tried and put to death “enemies of the Revolution.”
15. Reign of Terror Period in French history when thousands were killed during Robespierre’s rule, which began in 1793 and ended in July 1794, when Robespierre himself was put to death.
16. Napoleon Bonaparte successful general who was able to keep France free from government-protesting mobs inside and invading armies outside of France. He seized control as dictator in 1799.
17. Coup d’état overthrow of the government
18. Secular society society no longer tied to church as the authority
19. Nationalism loyalty to one’s country rather than to one’s king
20. Democratic ideas ideas which are characterized by free and equal participation by all in government
21. Romanticism New school of art and forms of literature that emerged during the time of the French and Latin American Revolutions. Emphasis on nature, nationalism, and emotion
22. novel , a long story with plot, characters, dialogue, etc., was developed during the time of the French and Latin American Revolutions
23. Miguel de Cervantes He is credited with writing the first novel
24. Don Quixote the first novel. Tells the story of an elderly man who becomes so enamored by old stories of brave knights that he seeks out his adventures
25. Romantic Painting Painting that showed classical subjects, public events, natural scenes, and living people (portraits). Emphasis on the emotional and spiritual, representation of the ideal, reminiscence for the beauty of times past, and a preference for exotic themes
26. Eugene Delacroix one of the most famous Romantic painters. From France.
27. Liberty Leading the People French painting which is a glorification of the idea of liberty
28. Latin American Revolutions The period of time when the central and South American colonists (of mostly Spain but also France and Brazil)worked towards becoming independent nations
29. Encomienda System A legal system used mainly by the Spanish during their colonization of the Americas. The Spanish granted a person a number of natives to protect and instruct in Spanish and the Catholic faith. The difference between encomienda and slavery was small.
30. Viceroys Peninsulares or native Spanish born at the top of the Encomienda system
31. Peninsulares native Spanish born
32. Creoles Spanish parents and born in the colonies; led many of the Latin American Revolutions
33. Mestizos mixed Spanish and Native American
34. Mulattos mixed Spanish and slave
35. Slaves and Native Americans at the bottom of the Encomienda system
36. Toussaint L’Ouverture Led slaves in Haiti who rebelled and defeated the armies of three foreign powers: Spain, then France, and finally Britain; abolished slavery; and eventually won independence.
37. Haiti When it gained independence in 1804, it was the first independent nation of Latin America and the Caribbean, the only nation in the world established as a result of a successful slave revolt, and the second republic in the Americas.
38. Father Miguel Hidalgo started the Mexican independence movement of mostly farm peasants and is referred to as the “Father of the Nation.”
39. Mexico In 1521, the Spanish conquered and colonized the territory from its base in México Tenochtitlan, which was administered as the Viceroyalty of New Spain. It become Mexico following recognition of the colony's independence in 1821.
40. Jose de San Martin a colonial soldier for Spain in its Peninsular War with France, would later fight to liberate his native Argentina as well as Chile from Spain. He also worked towards the liberation of Peru.
41. Southern Spanish South America area mostly liberated by Jose de San Martin
42. Simon Bolivar a native South American who led revolutionary efforts in much of the northern areas of South America, specifically Bolivia, Panama, Columbia, Ecuador, and Venezuela
43. Northern Spanish South America area mostly liberated by Simon Bolivar
44. President James Monroe US president who issued the Monroe Doctrine in 1823.
45. Monroe Doctrine It stated that the United States would not tolerate any European nations interfering in the Western Hemisphere while also recognizing Latin American nations as independent.
Created by: Room 211