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WH 10: Unit 7

Industrial Revolution & Imperialism Key Terms

TermDefinition
Industrial Revolution Period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an exclusively farm-based society to an industrial one-that took place during the late 1700s and early 1800s
Industrialization The process of going from farming to industrial society
Natural Resources Coal, iron ore, oil, naturally occurring materials that can be exploited by people
Steam Engine created by James Watt in the 1800s
British Enclosure Movement Movement in Great Britain where wealthy people bought out the land of ordinary people and kicked them off their property
Cottage Industries Smaller scale industries carried on at home by family members using their own equipment
Factory System system of manufacturing that began in the 18th century, that put cottage industries out of business
Modern Cities Areas where people grouped mostly around factories
James Hargreaves Created the spinning jenny
James Watt Created the steam engine
Eli Whitney Created the cotton gin
Henry Bessemer Created the process for turning iron into steel
Edward Jenner Developed the smallpox vaccine
Louis Pasteur Discovered bacteria
Improved Transportation One of the three results of the Industrial revolution, the brand new canals and railroads came out of the industrial revolution
Urbanization One of the three results of the Industrial Revolution, the increase of the population in cities rather than in rural locations as people moved to be closer to factories
Environmental Pollution One of the three results of the Industrial Revolution, with the burning of fossil fuels such as coal in order to heat water to power the steam engines
Standards of Living the level of wealth, comfort, material goods and necessities available to groups of people in a particular geographic area
Middle Class Grew during the Industrial Revolution
Working Class the lower class that mainly worked in manufacturing during the Industrial Revolution
Working Conditions Wages, hours, and overall factory life. Working conditions were extremely bad during the Industrial Revolution
Wages Pay, which was very low during the Industrial Revolution
Labor The cost of labor was something manufacturers didn't want to pay much for
Production the making of goods and services
Profits the positive yield from a job after all of the expenses are paid
Labor Unions associations of wage-earners uniting for the purpose of maintaining and improving the conditions of their employment
Strikes Work stoppages caused by a mass refusal of employees to work
Management The owners of factories
Lobbying Used political negotiations to push for laws to improve the lives of workers including women and children
Collective Bargaining a process of negotiations between employers and a group of employees aimed at reaching agreements that regulate working conditions
Suffrage The right to vote, specifically referring to the women's voting rights
Adam Smith The economist who first detailed capitalism
Wealth of Nations Book written by Adam Smith and talks about capitalism
Capitalism refers to an economic system based on a free market, open competition, profit motive, and private ownership of the means of production
Private companies Private people own these companies and investors, shareholders, buy into and invest in these private companies in capitalism
Capitalists Individuals who believe in and support capitalism
Free market Anyone can participate in the economy with no interference from the government
Supply How much of a good or service companies make
Demand How much of a good or service people want
Laissez-faire "Hands-off", "Let it be" approach that allows the market to regulate the economy without any government interference. It is the government's policy in a capitalist system
Karl Marx One of the two individuals credited with inventing socialism and communism
The Communist Manifesto A book that Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels wrote about communism and socialism
Friedrich Engels One of the two individuals credited with inventing socialism and communism
Das Kapital A book that Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels wrote about communism and socialism
Socialism An economic and political system that is based on some public and some private ownership of the means of production.
Communism An economic and political system that is based on complete public ownership of the means of production
Imperialism When a strong nation takes over a weaker nation or region and dominates its economic, political, or cultural life
"The White Man's Burden" The idea that the natives were a burden to the Europeans, that the Europeans had to civilize the natives
Social Darwinism The belief that all human groups compete for survival, and that the stronger groups will replace the weaker groups
Colonies When the foreign government takes over and controls every facet of the conquered countries government, economy, and culture
Protectorates Were created when stronger nations allowed the conquered people to control their own government with oversight from the Europeans
Spheres of Influence When a stronger nation only wanted to partner in the country's economics rather than poltical or economic
Cultural Diffusion An exchange of ideas between West and East
British East India Company A British company that was chartered by Queen Elizabeth I, the company's main objective was to make a profit by exploiting the abundant natural resources and gaining access to the markets in India
Sepoys Indian soldiers in the British army
Sepoy Mutiny Indian soldiers revolted against the British army because of rumors that the rifle cartridges were covered with beef and pork fat. The British put down the Mutiny and then officially made India a colony
Indian National Congress One of the two organizations that fought for Indian independence from Great Britain
Muslim Congress One of the two organizations that fought for Indian independence from Great Britain
Suez Canal Canal that the British controlled that connected the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea. Allowing ships from Europe to gain quick access to India and East Asia without having to go all the way around Africa
Scramble for Africa European nations competed for land and colonies in Africa
Berlin Conference Meeting in Berlin 1884-1885 in which 14 European countries met to divide the continent of Africa into pieces. They took all but 3% of the land
Cecil Rhodes Important British business owner who founded the DeBeers Mining Company, eventually controlling 90% of the world's diamond population
Opium Trade An addictive drug, that the British imported from India into China as a way of balancing out its reliance on Chinese tea
Open Door Policy USA policy that would allow any country to trade with China
Boxer Rebellion the Chinese boxers tried to rebel and get rid of the Europeans
Matthew Perry U.S. steamship captain armed with cannons that forced Japan to open to trade
Sino-Japanese War Japanese took on and beat the Chinese in the Sino-Japanese War.
Russo-Japanese War War between Russia and the Japanese and the Japanese surprised everyone by winning
Created by: thompsonce