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amino acid the basic unit of a protein molecule; there are 20 different amino acids used in proteins, each having a specific set of shape, electrical charge, and water or fat affinity characteristics
antirejection drug a medication that prevents the body from rejecting foreign solid organ transplants
B cell antibody-producing lymphocyte involved in humoral immunity
biologic-response modifiers agents that alter the expression and response to surface antigens and enhance immune cell activities in ways that promote destruction of human malignancies
biotechnology the application of biologic systems and organisms for agricultural, industrial, and medical purposes
cellular (cell-mediated) immunity a specific response to antigens that is mediated primarily by T lymphocytes and macrophages
cloning reproducing identical copies of a gene by DNA technology
colony-stimulating factor (CSF) a chemical that stimulates the bone marrow to produce blood cells
complement lipoproteins and globulins in blood plasma that react with the antigenantibody complex
complementary of a nucleic acid strand, having each nucleotide base paired up with its counterpart in the other strand
cytoprotective agent an agent administered to reduce the side effects and toxicity of chemotherapy agents
denatured disruption of the structure
diffuse tumor a cancerous growth that is widely distributed and are not localized
DNA sequence order of nucleotide bases in the DNA molecule; a group of three nucleotides translates into one amino acid
extravasation the escape of IV fluids into the surrounding tissue
granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) an agent that stimulates the bone marrow to produce specific white cells, such as the granulocytes
hematologic agent a replacement plasma protein that is necessary for blood coagulation and is not produced in a person with hemophilia
humoral immunity an immune response in which secreted antibodies are transported by bodily fluids
immune response the immune system's way of providing resistance to disease and malignancy through the production of antibodies and phagocytes
immunoglobulin (Ig) a protein that responds to a specific antigen; also known as an antibody
lymphatic system a network of vessels that carry lymph, the lymph nodes, and the lymphoid organs including the tonsils, spleen, and thymus; a system for filtering body fluids by nodes, vessels, and lymphocytes before the fluid returns to general circulation
MAb (monoclonal antibody) an antibody produced in the laboratory by a culture derived from a single B cell
macrophage a large white blood cell that engulfs antigens, toxins, and cellular debris, and digests it, and displays peptides complexed with MHC for recognition by T cells
neoplastic disease a disorder that occurs when normal cellular control mechanisms become altered; characterized by uncontrolled cellular growth and the development of abnormal cells; also referred to as cancer
nucleotide the basic unit of a DNA molecule, containing one of four possible bases
opsonization labeling antigenic material so that it is more readily identified and destroyed by macrophages
oral complications tissue injury to the oral cavity associated with chemotherapy and radiation
plasma cell a B cell that produces freely circulating antibody in very large quantities
plasmid a small circular ring of DNA that can insert itself into bacterial genes and can carry genes from one bacterial cell to another
primary site the original site where a cancer tumor develops
promoter the part of plasmid DNA where protein production starts
recombinant DNA artificial DNA produced in a laboratory by inserting strands of DNA from one organism into that of another organism
remission the condition in which a tumor is inactive with no cell division or growth; typically, a goal of chemotherapy
replication the process of copying the DNA of a cell into a new set of DNA molecules to produce a new cell
resistance lack of responsiveness of cancer cells to chemotherapy
secondary site a new cancer tumor site to which malignant cells have spread from the original site
small lymphocyte T and B memory cells, which carry and preserve information for the recognition of specific antigens
solid tumor a tumor that forms a solid mass and can be palpated
T cell lymphocyte that responds to antigens presented on the surface of other cells; involved in cellular immunity
terminator the portion of plasmid DNA where protein production stops
transcription the copying of information from a DNA strand onto an RNA strand, which then serves as a messenger to the molecular systems that use it to assemble a protein
Created by: softcrylic