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WH 10: Unit 9

Russian Revolution and Interwar Period Key Terms

TermDefinition
Russian Revolution The overthrow of Czar Nicholas II's government by Lenin and his communist Bolshevik party. +
Nicholas II The last Czar of Russia who abdicated the throne after the "March Revolution" and then was shot along with the rest of his family
Russo-Japanese War War between Japan and Russia that Russia lost in 1904. It was a humiliating defeat for Russia and left the Russian people frustrated and upset with their government and military
Bloody Sunday The Russian army killed hundreds of hungry workers who had peacefully gathered outside of the Czar's palace to ask for relief from the tough working conditions (happens before the March Revolution)
Bolsheviks Communist group in Russia led by Vladimir Lenin that overthrew the Russian government in the Russian Revolution
Vladimir Lenin Leader of the Communist group, the Bolsheviks, who overthrew Czar Nicholas II during the Russian Revolution
March Revolution An event where over 200,000 workers took to the streets to protest high inflation and the army joined the protesters and began to fire on the crowd which forced Czar Nicholas II to abdicate or step down.
Abdicate To step down from power voluntarily
Treaty of Brest Litovsk Treaty between Germany and Russia that ended Russia's involvement in WWI
"Peace, Land, and Bread" Lenin's slogan of promises that he made to the Russian people, he tried to fulfill this by giving land to the peasants, factories to the workers, and pulling Russia out of WWI
Russian Civil War Was a conflict between the Red Army and the White Army that occurred after the Russian Revolution had toppled the Czar's government. The Red Army won the Russian Civil War.
Red Army Made up of the Bolsheviks, led by Lenin, and fought the White Army during the Russian Civil War. They won the Russian Civil War.
White Army Made up of everyone who opposed the Bolsheviks' Red Army during the Russian Civil War. They would lose to the Red Army after 3 long years.
New Economic Policy Lenin's plan to rebuild the Russian economy after the Russian Civil War. A plan which focused on nationalizing the banks and government control of the economy.
Soviet Union New name of Russia, change occurred after the Russian Civil War. Change was made by Lenin.
Joseph Stalin Took over the Soviet Union after Lenin died. He created a totalitarian government in Russia. And put into practice the 5 Year Plan.
Totalitarian Government Government that has complete and total control over its people's lives.
Secret Police force in Russia Stalin's secret police force that arrested and killed Stalin's enemies. Helped him maintain a totalitarian government.
Great Purge Event where thousands of Stalin's enemies were killed or exiled
5 Year Plan Stalin's Plan for the economy that focused on industrialization but unfortunately did not provide for the needs of ordinary civilians.
Gulag Brutal network of prison camps for both criminals and political prisoners in Stalin's Soviet Union
The League of Nations International peace-keeping organization designed to control the mandates and to prevent another World War
Fourteen Points Woodrow Wilson's plan for post WWI peace, which included the idea of a League of Nations
Woodrow Wilson U.S. President during WWI who came up with the Fourteen Points which would become the blueprint for the Treaty of Versailles that ended WWI
Isolationism One of the two options for roles after WWI, in which a country opted not to form connections with other nations. The U.S. was very isolationist after WWI
Sovereignty Having sole authority over a region. The U.S. refused to give up its sovereignty and as a result did not join the League of Nations.
Interventionist Interventionist countries wanted to be involved and make connections with other nations, politically and economically.
Mandate The practice of the League of Nations giving a powerful nation permission to administer the government of a territory.
Mandate System Allied nations controlling nations until they were able to stand on their own as sanctioned by the League of Nations
British Mandates Iraq, Transjordan, & Palestine
French Mandates Syria & Lebanon
1929 Stock Market Collapse U.S. stock market collapsed and subsequently so would the U.S. banks, started the Great Depression in the U.S. which would become a global depression.
Hyperinflation Extreme inflation that occurred in Germany after WWI in which prices rose dramatically but wages did not, money became worthless and the economy ground to a halt.
Reparations Monetary penalties meant to punish a country for their performance in WWI, Germany faced 33 billion dollars in reparation payments to the Allied nations which upset them and hurt their economy.
Fascism Strong governments usually controlled by a single person and they tend to be totalitarian and practice radical nationalism
Mussolini Fascist leader of Italy who wanted to return Rome to its glory as an empire. Created a totalitarian government in Italy
Invasion of Ethiopia in 1935 Mussolini led Italy to conquer and take over Ethiopia in 1935. The League of Nations did nothing to stop Italian aggression.
Appeasement The policy of giving in to an aggressive country's demands to keep the peace
Hitler Leader of fascist Germany and the leader of the Nazi Party, who believed in Anti-Semitism, created a totalitarian government and reigned using his secret police known as the SS
SS Hitler's brutal secret police who helped Hitler control Germany by eliminating anyone who opposed Hitler
Fuhrer Title Hitler took after he had been elected Chancellor, this new title signified his complete control
Anti-Semitism Behavior discriminating against Jews, the German people started by boycotting Jewish businesses, then making the Jews wear the Yellow Star of David, passed laws that took away the rights of Jews and then would become more aggressive
Kristallnacht "Night of the Broken Glass" where Jewish businesses and homes were broken into and synagogues/temples were burned. It is the first example of the German people eliminating the Jews from German life.
Mein Kampf Book that Hitler wrote, where he expressed his feelings about the Jews, his feelings of German and Aryan superiority, and the idea that Germany needed more land (lebensraum)
Lebensraum Hitler's idea that Germany would need more living space because its people were racially superior.
Rhineland Area 30 miles on either side of the Rhine River (in between Germany and France) where no German troops were supposed to be, the goal was to put a buffer between Germany and France
Re-militarization of the Rhineland Aggressive act in which Hitler intentionally stationed German troops in the Rhineland, disobeying the Treaty of Versailles
Annexation of Austria In May of 1936 Germany annexed or took over Austria.
Sudetenland Part of Czechoslovakia, that was very rich in coal and iron, that Hitler demanded also become a part of Germany in 1938. Great Britain and France would give in and appease this demand.
Third Reich The official name for Hitler's Nazi regime from 1933 when Hitler takes over to 1945 and the end of WWII
Hirohito Emperor of Japan, who was mainly a figurehead and had very little say in the government
General Tojo Japanese military general who emphasized a great deal of control over Japan's government from the 1930s to 1945 and the end of WWII
Manchuria Chinese province rich in coal and iron ore
Invasion of Manchuria Japan successfully invades Manchuria in 1931 and later invades China, it is a sign of the growing aggressive nature of Japan's foreign policy
Created by: thompsonce