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Chapter 19


Ancien regime Old order where everyone in France belonged to one of three classes: Fist Estate, Second Estate, and Third Estate.
Jacques Necker A financial wizard, chose by King Louis XVI as an advisor. Proposed taxing the first and second estates, however, the nobles and high clergy forced the king to dismiss the would-be reformer. Urged the king to reduce extravagant court spending, reform gove
Cahiers Notebooks that all three estates prepared listing their grievances. Many called for reforms such as fairer taxes, freedom of the press, or regular meeting of the Estates General. Testified to boiling class resentments.
Tennis Court Oath Peope from the third estate swore "Never to separate and o meet wherever the circumstances might require until we have established a sound and just constitution."
National Assembly Claiming to represent the people of France, the delegates of the third Estate declared themselves this. They found their meeting hall locked and guarded. Reform-minded nobles and clergy joined.
Bastille A grim medieval fortress used as a prison for political and other prisoners.
Bourgeoisie Middle Class; Included prosperous bankers, merchants, and manufacturers.
Deficit spending A government's spending more money than it takes in.
Great Fear Rumors ran wild and set this off. Tales of attacks on villages and towns spead panic. Other rumors asserted that gov. troops were seizing peasant crops; Peasants unleashed their fury on nobles who were trying to reimpose medieval dues; Defiant peasants at
Legislative Assembly Had the power to makes laws, collect taxes, and decide on issues of war and peace. Took office in October 1791. It would survive for less than a year due to being faced will crises at home and abroad.
Declaration of Plinitz In August 1791, the king of Prussian and the emperor of Austria, issued this. This document, the two monarchs threatened to intervene to protect the French monarchy. It may have been mostly bluff, but revolutionaries in France tooke the threat seriously a
Jacobins A radical in the legislative assembly that the sans-culottes found support among. ere mostly middle-class lawyers or intellectuals. Used pamlleteers and sympathetic newspaper editiors to advance the republican cause.
Faction Small groups that competed to gain power.
Emigre Nobles, clergy, and others who had fled France and its revolutionary forces. They reported attacks on their privileges, their property, their religion, and ever their lives.
Republic Government ruled not by a monarch, but by elected representatives.
Committee of Public Safety Created by the convention to deal with the threats to France. Was a 12-member committee. And had almost absolute power as it battled to save the revolution. Prepared France for all-out war, issuing a levee en masse.
Maximilien Robespierre Was a shred lawyer and politician that quickly rose to the leadership of the Committee of Public Safety. His selfless dedicatication to the revolution earned him the nickname "the incorruptible"; Enemies called him a tyrant. Embraced Rousseau's idea of th
Directory Held power from 1795 to 1799; Weak but dictatorial, it faced growing discontent. Quickly suppressed the sans-culottes when rising bread prices stirred hungry sans-culottes to riot. Was the revival of royalist feeling.
Olyme de Couges A journalist, that demanded equal rights in her Declaration of the Rights of Woman. "Woman is born free," she proclaimed, "and her rights are the same as those of man." She reasoned "all citizens, be they men or women, being equal in the state's eyes, mus
La Merseillaise Became the French national anthem. From the port city troops marched to a rousing new song. It urged the "children of the fatherland" to march against the "bloody banner of tyranny."
Jacques Louis David A leading artist of the arts adopted by France that were a grand classical style that echoed the grandeur of ancient Rome. He immoralized on canvas such stirring events as the Tennis Court Oath and, later, Napoleon's coronation. He also helped shape the w
Suffrage The right to vote
Nationalism A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country.
Secular Nonreligious.
Consulate Where Napoleon helped overthrow the weak Directory and set up a three-man governing board known as this. Another constituion was drawn up, but Napoleon soon took the title First Consul. During this, Napolean consolidated his power by strengthening the cen
Concordat of 1801 Where Napoleon made peace with the Catholic Church; This kept the Church under state control but recognized religious freedom for Catholics;
Napoleonic Code Among Napolean's most lasting reforms; Embodied Enlightment princeiples such as the equality of all citizens before the law, religious toleration, and advancement based on merit; Undid some reforms of the French Revolution. For example, women lost most of
Confederation of the Rhine Napoleon abolished the tottering Holy Roman Empire and create this under French protection; Had 38-member; Put Prussian territory in half, turning part of old Poland into the Grad Duchy of Warsaw.
Battle of Trafalgar Fought off the South-west coast of Spain; British admiral Horatio Nelson smashed a French Fleet;Napoleon struck at Britain's lifeblood; He waged economic warfare through the Continental system, which closed European ports to British goods;
Continental System Closed European ports to British goods; Failed to bring Britain to its knees.
Plebiscite Ballot in which voters say yes or no.
Annex Added outright
Blockade Involves shutting off ports to keep people or supplies from moving in or out.
Joseph Bonaparte Napolean's brother; Replaced the king of Spain;
Duke of Wellington Arthur Wellesley; Sent by the British with an army under him to help the Spanish figt France.
Marie Louise Austrian princess; Married Napoleon; The daughter of the Hapsburg emperor;
Scorched earth policy Left the French hungry and cold as winter came. Where the Russians retreated eastward, burning crops and villages as they went, to avoid battles with Napolean.
Waterloo A town in Belgium; Where the opposing armies of the Battle of the Nations at Lepzig met near on June, 18, 1815;
Clemens von Metternich Prince of Austria; All the work fell to him while the entertainment of parties, concerts, and ballets kept thousands of minor players busy
Quadruple Alliance The four nations(Austria, Russia, Prussia, and Great Britain) pledged to act together to maintain the balance of power and to suppress revolutionary uprisings;
Guerrilla warfare Hit and run raids
Adbdicate Stepped down from power.
Legitimacy Restoring hereditary monarchies that the French Revolution or Napoleon had unseated.
Created by: Ashley Luallen