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History Final

Ms. Hughes' World History Final

Treaty of Kanagawa Opened Japanese ports to the US
French Indochina Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia
Role of the US in the Panama uprising against Columbia Supported uprising
Sepoys Indian soldiers who fought in the British army
Imperialism The process of one people ruling over another
Leopold II King of Belgium; assumed the title of sovereign of the Congo Free State; treated the Congolese brutally
Benito Juarez Overthrew Santa Anna; reduced power of Catholic Church and military; started civil war
Raj Era of British rule in India
Muslim League Founded in 1906 by Muslim leaders that sought to protect Muslim interests; goal was to eliminate British rule; minority
Boxer Rebellion A siege of a foreign settlement in Beijing by Chinese nationalists who were angry at foreign involvement in China; began in 1899 when rebels attacked missionaries and Chinese converts to Christianity
British East India Company A trading company that ruled in India in the name of Britain; controlled trade in India and East Asia; involved in politics
Suez Canal Egyptian waterway connecting the Mediterranean and the Red Seas; built by the Franco-Egyptian Company; Britain took control of the canal
Sino-Japanese War Between China and Japan over Korea; Japan's victory symbolizes its successful modernization
Open-door policy Allows free trade in European ports in China
Taiping Rebellion Revolt against Qing dynasty; 20 million died; led by Hong Xiuquan who wanted to create a "Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace"; worst peasant rebellion ever
Sepoy Mutiny A rebellion in 1857 by sepoys that refused to use a new type of British rifle for religious reasons; led to direct transfer of control to Britain
Monroe Doctrine Forbids European colonization in the Americas
"Jewel In The Crown" India in the British Empire
Role of US in the Mexican Revolution Supported the Mexican government
Panama Canal Result of US support of an uprising against Columbia
Decline of the Mughal Empire The British East India Company manipulated the Mughal rulers into chaos and then took over
Four counties which carved out spheres of influence in China in the late 19th century Britain, France, US, and Russia
Effect of the reforms of Japan's Meiji era Japan became a modern industrialized nation
Motives for the "Scramble for Africa" Raw materials, rivalry, Social Darwinism
Important raw material from India following the Civil War in the US Cotton
Country that controlled the spice trade in the 1600s and 1700s Britain
The main political motive for the new European imperialism in Africa Nationalism
Emperor of Ethiopia who modernized his army and defeated the Italians at the Battle of Adwa Menelik II
Siam The only Southeast Asian country to retain its independence in the 1800s
Portugal The first European country to seize land in Africa
Military advantages Major factor that allows European nations to extend their control over Asia and Africa after 1800
Reason why Britain began exporting opium to China To balance trade
Reason why Britain occupied Egypt in 1882 Suez Canal
Indian National Congress The first Indian nationalist organization founded in 1885; made of mostly English-speaking Hindu majority; goal is to eliminate British rule
Swadeshi Boycott of British goods that lasted from 1905 to 1908
Colony A territory governed by a foreign power
Protectorate A territory that had its own government but is controlled by a foreign power
Sphere of influence A territory in which a country claims exclusive political or economic rights
Opium Wars Between Britain and China over illegal opium sales by British merchants; China lost
Sun Yixian Believed in democracy, nationalism, and "people's livelihood"; founded the Revolutionary Alliance in 1905
Emperor Meiji Emperor of Japan from 1867 to 1912; resulted imperial rule in Japan
Extraterritoriality The right of citizens in another country to be tried in the courts of their native country
Unequal treaties Trade treaties that China signed under threat of invasion; gave Western powers benefits
Sovereignty Independent control of its government
Indemnity Payment for losses in a war
Meiji Restoration Emperor Meiji' s return to power
Russo-Japanese War Between Japan and Russia over Korea and Manchuria; stalemate
Treaty of Nanjing Opened five Chinese ports to western trade and granted extraterritoriality to British citizens; the first of the unequal treaties
Treaty of Portsmouth Gave Japan ports and railroads in Manchuria
The only city Europeans could trade in in China Guangzhou
Social Darwinism Used survival of the fittest for races; used to justify imperialism and racism
Cecil Rhodes Wanted to expand the British Empire and believed in the Anglo-saxon race
Berlin Conference Meeting of European nations for rules on colonization of Africa
Shaka Founder of the Zulu Empire; exterminated many clans and conquered most of South Africa
Roosevelt Corollary US vow to use military might to keep Europeans out of the Americas
Yellow journalism Sensationalist style of writing
Emilio Aquinaldo Rebel leader in the Philippines who had contacted with US forces against the Spanish
Platt Amendment Part of the constitution of Cuba that gave the US authority to intervene in Latin America
Jose Marti Exiled poet and journalist who founded the Cuban Revolutionary Party
Francisco Madero The 1910 presidential candidate who called for a revolution against the Diaz government
Francisco "Pancho" Villa Rebel leader who attacked the US for supporting Carranza as president of Mexico
Emiliano Zapata Led indigenous peasants in the call for land reforms
Porifiro Diaz President and dictator of Mexico for a total of thirty years; ruled the people of Mexico harshly
Spanish-American War Between Spain and US over the sinking of the USS Maine; the US won and gained Puerto Rico and Guam and purchased the Philippines for 20 million
Venustiano Carranza Mexican revolutionary and politician; he led forces against Huerta in the Mexican Revolution