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Functional Anatomy

Joints and Bone Characteristics

Kinesiology study of motion or human movement
Anatomic kinesiology study of human musculoskeletal system & musculotendinous system
Biomechanics application of mechanical physics to human motion
Structural Kinesiology study of muscles as they are involved in science of movement
Anatomical Position and the difference b/w anatomical and fundamental Anatomical position : standing upright, facing forward, feet parallel and close, and palms facing forward Fundamental: same except arms are at sides and palms facing the body
Anterior Front
Posterior Back
Inferior Below
Superior Above
posterolateral behind & to one side (specifically to the outside)
anteromedial in front & towards the inner side/midline
contralateral pertaining to or relating to the opposite side
ipsilateral on the same side
bilateral relating to the left and right sides of the body
distal situated away from the center of the body
proximal nearest the body
lateral on or to the side
caudal below in relation to another structure; inferior
cephalic above in relation to another structure; superior
deep beneath or below the surface - used to describe muscles/tissue location
superficial near the surface; used to describe relative depth of muscle/tissue
prone the body lying face downward; on one's stomach
supine body lying facing upward; lying on one's back
dorsal relating to the back; being located near, on or towards the posterior part
ventral relating to the belly or abdomen
volar relating to palm of the hand or the sole of the foot
plantar relating to the sole or undersurface of the foot
axial (3 parts) cephalic (head), cervical (neck), trunk
appendicular upper limbs, lower limbs
sagittal plane divides body into left and right halves
frontal plane divides the body into front and back halves
transverse plane divides body into top and bottom half
coronal axis runs mediolateral, 90 degree angle with the sagittal plane, same orientation as frontal plane
anteroposterior axis same orientation as the sagittal plane, runs front to back
What movements use the coronal axis? flexion/extension
What movements use the anteroposterior axis? abduction/adduction
vertical axis runs down through the head, right angle to the transverse plane
what movements use vertical axis? internal/external rotation
How many bones in the human body? 206
How many bones in the axial skeleton versus the appendicular skeleton? 80 axial bones, 126 appendicular bones
What are the 5 functions of the skeleton? 1. Protection of the heart, lungs, organs 2. Support to maintain posture 3. Movement by serving as points of attachment for muscles 4. mineral storage (calcium/phosphorus) 5. hemopoiesis - process of blood cell formation in red blood marrow
What are the 5 types of bones? long, short, flat, irregular, sesamoid
what type of bone contains the medullary canal? long bones ex. phalanges, metacarpals, tibia, fibula, femur, radius, ulna
What bones are small and cubical shaped? Short bones ex. carpals and tarsals
Which bones usually have a curved surface? flat bones ex. sternum, scapula
What are examples of irregular bones entire spine, pubis, and maxilla
Which bones are small bones embedded in the tendons and provide protection as well as mechanical advantage? sesamoid bones ex. patella
Diaphysis long cylindrical shaft of bone
cortex hard, dense, compact bone that forms walls of diaphysis
Periosteum dense, fibrous membrane covering outer surface of diaphysis
endosteum fibrous membrane that lines the inside of the cortex
medullary cavity b/w walls of diaphysis, contains yellow or fatty marrow
epiphysis ends of long bones formed from spongy bone
epiphyseal plate growth plate - thin plate of cartilage that separates diaphysis and epiphyses
articular cartilage covers the epiphysis to provide cushioning and reduce friction
endochondral bones bones which develop from hyaline cartilage; grow rapdily into the structures shaped similarly to the bones they will become
when does longitudinal growth stop? when the epiphyseal plates disappear and close
osteoblasts from new bone
osteoclasts "clean up crew" - break down/resorb old bones
What is the breakdown of bone weight 60-70% bone weight - calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate 25-30% water
What is the point of collagen? provides some flexibility and strength in resisting tension
What causes progressive loss of collagen & increases brittleness? aging
What is most outer bone made up of? cortical bone
Which type of bone has higher porosity? cancellous/spongy
Bones reshape themselves based upon what? stresses placed upon them
bone mass increases over time with what? increased stress
Which type of bone is stifffer? Which type can withstand more strain? Cortical is stiffer, but Cancellous can undergo greater strength
What are the two main types of bone markings? Processes and Cavities
Articulation connection of bones at a joint usually to allow movement between the surfaces of the bones
What are the 3 major classifications of joints? Synarthrodial, Amphiarthrodial, Diarthrodial
synarthrodial joint immovable joint (ex. skull sutures)
syndesmosis two bones joined together by a strong ligament or an interosseus membrane that allows minimal movement between the bones ex. tibiofibular joint
ampiarthrodial joint slightly moveable (syndesmosis, synchonrosis, symphsis)
synchrondosis joint separated by hyaline cartilage that allows slight movement between the bones (ribs)
symphysis joint separated by a fibrocartilage pad that allows slight movement (pelvis)
diarthrodial joints synovial joints; freely moveable, composed of a sleevelike joint capsule (cartilage) and secretes synovial fluid to lubricate the joint cavity
how many planes of motion do diarthrodial joints have motion in 1 or more
arthrodial joints gliding joints; consist of 2 plane or flat bony surfaces which butt against each other, little motion possible (ex. spine, intercarpal joints)
ginglymus joint hinge joint; uniaxial articulation. only motion in one plane (ex. knee, elbow)
trochoid joint pivot joint; uniaxial proximal and distal rasial-ulnar joints
condyloid joint knuckle joint; ball and socket 2nd-5th metacarpals
enarthrodial joint multiaxial/triaxial ball and socket joint ex. hip/shoulder
motions of the enarthrodial joints flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, diagonal abduction & adduction, rotation, (circumduction)
motions of the condyloid joint flexion, extension, abduction & adduction (circumduction)
motions of the arthrodial joint flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, diagonal abduction & adduction, & rotation, (circumduction)
sellar joint **** saddle joint; triaxial joint, two repciprically concave and convex articular surfaces
motions of the sellar joint Flexion, extension, adduction & abduction, circumduction & slight rotation
physiological movements flexion, extension, abduction, adduction & rotation occur by bones moving through planes of motion about an axis of rotation at a joint
accessory motions spin, glide, & roll
spin a single point on one articular surface rotates about a single point on another point on another articular surface
roll a series of points on one articular surface contacts with a series of points on another articular surface
glide slide; a specific point on one articulating surface comes in contact with a series of points on another surface
can physiological motion occur if accessory motion is prevented? no, unless by joint compression or distraction
which two motions must occur together to some extent? glide and roll
Created by: moodym