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U-1 Ch.13

Environmental Geography

Atmosphere thin layer of air right over earth’s surface
Atmosphere Functions Supplies oxygen,Protection from sun’s harmful rays, Moderates temperatures, Brings moisture from ocean à land
1883: Krakatau erupts in Indonesia resulting in 2.5 cubic miles of ash/rock in atmosphere, all traces disappear
1980 Mount St. Helen erupts where in NW U.S. resulting in similar but smaller result as Krakatau
Global warming tropospheric pollution à Earth retains more heat
Early 2000s computer models predicted 3.57°-5.57°F increase
3.57°-5.57°F increase could be enough to... raise sea levels up to 6 inches
March of 2002: Rhode Island-sized ice chunk broke off of... Antarctica
Change in climate à changes in hydrologic cycle would affect precipitation cycles, change to agricultural patterns, animal habitats
Amounts of “greenhouse gases” increase ___% per decade? 2
“greenhouse gases” include carbon dioxide, nitrous oxides, methane
Acid rain result of pollutants in atmosphere
sulfur dioxide + nitrous oxides + water vapor equals acidic precipitation
Results of acid rain acidification of lakes/streams à fish die, stunted forest growth, loss of crops in affected areas, (also accelerates building/monument corrosion in cities)
industrial areas (i.e. U.S.) enacting legislation for clean-air standards with some positive results such as In Canada + Scandanavia, recovery from acid rain damage faster than expected
Deforestation affects oxygen cycle
1980: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of UN study of rate of forest depletion showed 44% tropical rainforest already been affected
over ___% of rainforests being logged every year? 1
second-growth forest lacks dying trees, why important? many species depend upon
Soil Erosion loss of potentially productive soil
Causes of Soil Erosion population growth à cultivation of more lands à increased erosion
Results of Soil Erosion farmers unable to leave parts of land fallow, shortened field rotation cycles (soil unable to fully recover),unsuitable dry land farmed anyway
2004 report: over 10 hectares of agricultural lands lost to... erosion
U.S. biggest producer of... solid waste, debris, garbage
In US, about __.__ pounds solid waster per person per day 3.7
160 million metric tons of this per year solid waste
open dumps replaced by sanitary landfills
In U.S., landfill capacity reached in about ___ states 12
U.S., EU, Japan export solid waste to... Africa, Middle and S. America, E Asia
1989 treaty to control exporting waste required consent of recipient country
toxic waste danger from chemicals, infectious materials, etc.
Low level Radioactive give off small amount of radiation anddisposed of in steel drums in special gov. landfills
High-level: strong radiation (nuclear plants/factories) radioactive for thousands of years;no satisfactory place/way of disposal found;put in special drums in 100 sites
U.S. developing 2 major sites for radioactive removal Yucca Mountain in Nevada and New Mexico
Biodiversity The diversity of all aspects of life found on the earth.
How many species are there? Estimates of numbers of species range from 10 million to one hundred million. 1.75 mil species have been identified
-Humans have dramatically increased rates of extinction over the last _____ years 100
Percentages of extinct species in last 100 years 8%plants, 5%fish, 11%birds, 18%mammals
Extinction depends on… 1.) The range of the species 2.) Its scarcity 3.) Its geographic concentration Ex: If a species with a small range, high degree of scarcity, and a small geographic concentration has its habitat threatened, extinction may follow.
How have humans’ impacted biodiversity? -Domestication of animals + agricultural domestication of plant life-Caused changes in human relationships with other species-Birds and mammals have been hunted as food and as resources
Ex: In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, beaver populations were drastically reduced as the beavers were trapped and skinned for their... pelts
Birds were hunted for their feathers to... decorate fashionable hats.
Elephants and walruses continue to be hunted for their... tusks to make ivory.
In the last 400 years… *650 species of plants have become extinct *480 animals have become extinct
Human travel has had these effects 1.)Introduced new species to areas around the globe: Ex: Rats; devastating effects on ocean islands -New species cause competition with native species, and prey on the native species Ex: Dodo bird; hunted to extinction by humans
Introduced species brought over new _____ diseases
Diseases caused decimation and extinction of _______ _______ native species
What is responsible for the expanding impact of humans on the environment over the past two centuries? 1.)Dramatic growth of human population 2.)Consumption 3.)Technology
What is political ecology? As described by Gray and Moseley, “political economy; power and history in shaping human environmental interactions.”
I. G. Simmons said a hunter-gather could rely on the resources that could be found within an area of about 26 square kilometers; today people get resources from all over the world.
The amount of energy used from person to person depends on... where you live
In Taipei they have envelopes of smog caused by... internal combustion engine and mechanized manufacturing
Important parts of technologies that contribute to environmental problems are two critical sectors of the economy: transportation and energy.
1972 U.N. Conference located in Stockholm; discussed on environmental policy.
UNCED(United Nations Conference on Environment and Development)- held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992; framework guide in international activity in environment- Delegates of UNCED gave Global Environment Facility important authority over environmental action on global scale.
Ozone Layer ozone creates smogozone layer helps protects Earth from sun rays
1985- British scientist found ozone layer in South Pole and was shrinking. Cause was CFC( chlorofluorocarbons
Protection of the Ozone layer began in 1985 with Vienna Convention of the Protection of the Ozone Layer
Montreal Protocol stop production of CFC(signed in September of 1987 by 105 countries and the European Community
Created by: sserrano