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Adams HCHS AP Human Geo. Rubenstein Ch 9

Agribusiness Commercial agriculture characterized by the integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations.
Agricultural Revolution The process that began when humans first domesticated plants and animals, and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering.
Agriculture The deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earth’s surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance or economic gain.
Aquaculture The cultivation of seafood under controlled conditions.
Cash crop A crop that is grown for sale, rather than for the farmer’s own use.
Cereal grain A grass that yields grain for food.
Columbian exchange The transfer of plants and animals, as well as people, culture, and technology, between the Western Hemisphere and Europe, as a result of European colonization and trade.
Commercial agriculture Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm.
Commercial gardening and fruit farming Relatively small-scale production of fruits, vegetables, and other horticulture.
Conservation tillage A method of soil cultivation that reduces soil erosion and runoff.
Crop Any plan gathered from a field as a harvest during a particular season.
Crop rotation The practice of rotating the use of different fields from crop to crop each year to avoid exhausting the soil.
Desertification Degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting.
Dietary energy consumption The amount of food that an individual consumes, measured in kilocalories (calories in the U.S.).
Double cropping Harvesting twice a year from the same field.
Food security Physical, social, and economic access at all times to safe and nutritious food sufficient to meet dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life.
Genetically modified organism (GMO) A living organism that possesses a novel combination of genetic material obtained through the use of modern technology.
Grain Seed of a cereal grass.
Green revolution Rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers.
Herbicide A chemical to control unwanted plants.
Horticulture The growing of fruits, vegetables, flowers, and tree crops.
Intensive subsistence agriculture A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land.
Milkshed The area surrounding a city from which milk is supplied.
Mixed crop and livestock farming Commercial farming characterized by integration of crops and livestock; most of the crops are fed to animals rather than consumed directly by humans.
Monocropping The practice of growing the same single crop year after year.
No tillage A farming practice that leaves all of the soil undisturbed and the entire residue of the previous year’s harvest left untouched on the fields.
Organic agriculture Farming that depends on the use of naturally occurring substances while prohibiting or strictly limiting synthetic substances, such as herbicides, pesticides, and growth hormones.
Overfishing Capturing fish faster than they can reproduce.
Paddy Malay word for wet rice, commonly but incorrectly used to describe a sawah.
Pastoral nomadism A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals.
Pesticide A substance to control pests, including weeds.
Plantation A large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usually to a more developed country.
Ranching A form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area.
Ridge tillage System of planting crops on ridge tops in order to reduce farm production costs and promote greater soil conservation.
Sawah A flooded field for growing rice.
Second Agricultural Revolution An increase in agricultural productivity through improvement of crop rotation and breeding of livestock, beginning in the U.K. in the seventeenth century.
Shifting cultivation A form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for a relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period.
Subsistence agriculture Agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer’s family.
Sustainable agriculture Farming methods that preserve long-term productivity of land and minimize pollution, typically by rotating soul-restoring crops with cash crops and reducing inputs of fertilizer and pesticides.
Swidden A patch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning.
Transhumance Seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures.
Truck farming Commercial gardening and fruit farming, so named because truck was a Middle English word meaning bartering or the exchange of commodities.
Undernourishment Dietary energy consumption that is continuously below the minimum requirement for maintaining a healthy life and carrying out light physical activity.
Wet rice Rice planted on dryland in a nursery then moved to a deliberately flooded field to promote grown.
Created by: flordaman
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