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Introduction to Geography.
|Kenya is in Eastern Africa, economy is
|mostly all tea and coffee are planted.
|Hunger is a major problem for who
|One-sixth of the world’s population is
|starving, with no food.
|1 billion of the poor’s are
|women, and children, because they have little power, and money.
|A major cause of starvation is
|poverty, not having enough money to buy food, failure of food distribution systems, and cultural practices, which men have more power over women.
|Poverty caused by
|taxes, paying rent, buying a home, and taking care of children
|4% of Norway and 70% of Bangladesh has
|Norway is wealthy, and well fed, in which Bangladesh is
|The Norwegians can import food, but for the Bangladeshis,
|two-thirds of their country is flooded because of the monsoon.
|8% of Kenya land is arable, but w. highlands are most productive agricultural in the world
|Globalized economy, tiny farms
|Those in the western highlands of Kenya own some sort of
|coffee or tea corporations
|Mostly Kenya women work in the fields, because
|women’s cannot own fields
|Kenya needed foreign income and takes part in
|tourism, exporting tea, and coffee exporting
|Kenya economy looks like this
|Globalized economy, tiny farms
|Kenya cannot solve poverty b/c
|switching to cash crops destroys peoples’ economy
|Observe what people are doing & Observe how their reactions vary across space
|how people make places, organize space and society, and make sense of everyone in locality, region, and world
|Brings traits together makes
|Effects of Globalization
|Increases interactions, deepening relationships, and increases interdependence
|Explains the local, regional, and the global-all affect each other without regard to country borders
|All parts of world are affected by
|globalization and human action
|Geographic questions look to answer
|Physical geography, Physical phenomena
|Explain the “why of where”
|why do things happen where they are, how does it influence other places
|how things are laid out, organized, and arranged on the Earth, and how they appear on the landscape
|Also describes patterns and relationships of the distributions
|Spread of Cholera
|to China, Japan, E. Africa, and Europe in 1816, 1826-1837, and 1842-1862
|Dr. Snow specialized in
|medical geography to define the cholera pandemic
|Dr. Snow plots map of cholera victims and they congest around
|Dr. Snow gives order to remove...
|handle from pump and cholera victims fall dramatically
|Cholera still present...
|in refugee camps of Africa and Asia, with outbreak in Europe in 1972, and epidemic Lima, Peru, in December 1990, that killed 10,000
|Used to identify and classify change over time
|5 Themes made by
|National Geographic Society in 1986
|location, place,human environment, movement, region
|logical attempt to explain the locational pattern of an economic activity and the manner in which its producing areas are interrelated
|sense of place
|state of mind derived from the infusion of a place with meaning and emotion by remembering important events
|perception of places
|belief or "understanding" about a place developed through books, movies, stories or pictures
|depends on the distances among places, the accessibility of places and the transportation and communication connectivity
|refers to the materical character of a place, the complex nature features, human structures, and other tangible objects that give a place a particular form
|visible imprint of human activity on the landscape
|cultural succession and its lasting imprint
|art and science of making maps
|longitude and latitude
|a place in relation to other human and physical features
|a hunt for a cache whose coordinates are places on the Internet for other geocachers
|maps we carry in our minds
|show locations of places and geographic features
|All maps help to
|simplify the world
|make broader and easier to understand.
|Purpose of shading of maps
|show how much or how little of some phenomena can be found on part of the Earth’s surface
|Areas shaded in the most vibrant green are places that receive the most...
|The moistest areas other than South Asia and South East Asia are clustered against what shore?
|A method of collecting data or information through the use of instruments that are physically distant from the area or object of study.
|Remotely sensed data are collected by
|satellites and aircraft and are almost instantaneously available.
|Geographic Information Systems(GIS)
|A collection of computer hardware and software that permits spatial data to be collected, recorded, retrieved, manipulated, analyzed, and displayed to the user.
|Geographers use GIS for
|applications in human and physical geographic research.
|Data gathered by agencies can be integrated into a GIS and then analyzed
|GIS can be used for
|intelligence, interpret data, and make recommendations on issues of homeland security defense
|Geographic Information Science
|Emerging research field concerned with studying the development and use of geospatial concepts and techniques to examine geographic patterns and processes.
|Geographers study places and patterns with local, regional, national, and global...
|Distance on a map compared to distance on Earth
|Context of maps looks different at different...
|The territorial extent of something
|used by Victoria Lawson to describe rescaling
|Constitutes an area that shares similar characteristics
|Geographers use regions for
|physical criteria and cultural traits
|spatial system, boundaries defined by the limits of that system
|Ex of Functional region
|based on impressions that we get from other cultures
|Ex of Perceptual
|regionIraq is portrayed to us as a war zone because of what we see in the media
|Ex of Formal region
|area in Europe where 90% of the people speak French
|Involves the actual movement of individuals who have already adopted the idea or innovation, and who carry it to a new, perhaps distant, locale, where they proceed to disseminate it. (Occurs most frequently through migration)
|Ex of Relocation Diffusion
|Immigrants develop ethnic neighborhoods in their new country in order to maintain their culture
|Ways of seeing the world spatially that are used by geographers in answering research questions. (Relative location, Absolute location, mental maps, diffusion, sense of place, and cultural landscape)
|Geographers use remote sensing, fieldwork, GIS, GPS, and qualitative/quantitative techniques to explore
|linkages among people and places to explain differences across people, places, scales, and times
|The view that the natural environment has a controlling influence over various aspects of human life, including cultural development. (climate is critical factor in how humans behave)
|Climate and the Energy of Nations(1974)
|Written by Sidney Markham, thought that by tracing the migration of the center of power in the Mediterranean, he could detect the changing climates of that part of Europe
|lines connecting points of equal temperature values
|A viewpoint that holds that human decision making and technology, not the environment, is the crucial factor in cultural development.
|Trend of Possibilism and Environmental Determinism in modern day geography
|possibilism is being more widely accepted and environmental determinism is being discredited.
|An area of inquiry concerned with culture as a system of adaptation to environment
|An area of inquiry fundamentally concerned with the environmental consequences of dominant political-economic arrangements and understandings.
|Cultural geography is a subset of human geography
|looks at the ways culture is implicated in the full spectrum of topics addressed in human geography.