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U-1 Ch.1

Introduction to Geography.

Kenya is in Eastern Africa, economy is mostly all tea and coffee are planted.
Hunger is a major problem for who entire world
One-sixth of the world’s population is starving, with no food.
1 billion of the poor’s are women, and children, because they have little power, and money.
A major cause of starvation is poverty, not having enough money to buy food, failure of food distribution systems, and cultural practices, which men have more power over women.
Poverty caused by taxes, paying rent, buying a home, and taking care of children
4% of Norway and 70% of Bangladesh has arable land.
Norway is wealthy, and well fed, in which Bangladesh is poor
The Norwegians can import food, but for the Bangladeshis, two-thirds of their country is flooded because of the monsoon.
8% of Kenya land is arable, but w. highlands are most productive agricultural in the world Globalized economy, tiny farms
Those in the western highlands of Kenya own some sort of coffee or tea corporations
Mostly Kenya women work in the fields, because women’s cannot own fields
Kenya needed foreign income and takes part in tourism, exporting tea, and coffee exporting
Kenya economy looks like this Globalized economy, tiny farms
Kenya cannot solve poverty b/c switching to cash crops destroys peoples’ economy
Vocab: Fieldwork Observe what people are doing & Observe how their reactions vary across space
Human Geography how people make places, organize space and society, and make sense of everyone in locality, region, and world
Brings traits together makes diverse places
Effects of Globalization Increases interactions, deepening relationships, and increases interdependence
Vocab: Globalization Explains the local, regional, and the global-all affect each other without regard to country borders
All parts of world are affected by globalization and human action
Geographic questions look to answer Physical geography, Physical phenomena
Explain the “why of where” why do things happen where they are, how does it influence other places
Spatial distribution how things are laid out, organized, and arranged on the Earth, and how they appear on the landscape
Spatial Distribution Also describes patterns and relationships of the distributions
Spread of Cholera to China, Japan, E. Africa, and Europe in 1816, 1826-1837, and 1842-1862
Dr. Snow specialized in medical geography to define the cholera pandemic
Dr. Snow plots map of cholera victims and they congest around Street pump
Dr. Snow gives order to remove... handle from pump and cholera victims fall dramatically
Cholera still present... in refugee camps of Africa and Asia, with outbreak in Europe in 1972, and epidemic Lima, Peru, in December 1990, that killed 10,000
Spatial Perspective Used to identify and classify change over time
5 Themes made by National Geographic Society in 1986
FIVE THEMES location, place,human environment, movement, region
location theory logical attempt to explain the locational pattern of an economic activity and the manner in which its producing areas are interrelated
sense of place state of mind derived from the infusion of a place with meaning and emotion by remembering important events
perception of places belief or "understanding" about a place developed through books, movies, stories or pictures
spatial interaction depends on the distances among places, the accessibility of places and the transportation and communication connectivity
landscape refers to the materical character of a place, the complex nature features, human structures, and other tangible objects that give a place a particular form
cultural landscape visible imprint of human activity on the landscape
sequent occupance cultural succession and its lasting imprint
cartography art and science of making maps
absolute location longitude and latitude
relative location a place in relation to other human and physical features
geocaching a hunt for a cache whose coordinates are places on the Internet for other geocachers
mental maps maps we carry in our minds
reference maps show locations of places and geographic features
thematic maps tell stories
All maps help to simplify the world
Generalize make broader and easier to understand.
Purpose of shading of maps show how much or how little of some phenomena can be found on part of the Earth’s surface
Areas shaded in the most vibrant green are places that receive the most... rain
The moistest areas other than South Asia and South East Asia are clustered against what shore? Atlantic
Remote Sensing A method of collecting data or information through the use of instruments that are physically distant from the area or object of study.
Remotely sensed data are collected by satellites and aircraft and are almost instantaneously available.
Geographic Information Systems(GIS) A collection of computer hardware and software that permits spatial data to be collected, recorded, retrieved, manipulated, analyzed, and displayed to the user.
Geographers use GIS for applications in human and physical geographic research.
Data gathered by agencies can be integrated into a GIS and then analyzed spatially.
GIS can be used for intelligence, interpret data, and make recommendations on issues of homeland security defense
Geographic Information Science Emerging research field concerned with studying the development and use of geospatial concepts and techniques to examine geographic patterns and processes.
Geographers study places and patterns with local, regional, national, and global... scales
Scale Distance on a map compared to distance on Earth
Context of maps looks different at different... scales
Scale The territorial extent of something
Jumping scales used by Victoria Lawson to describe rescaling
Region Constitutes an area that shares similar characteristics
Geographers use regions for analytic purposes
Formal region physical criteria and cultural traits
Functional region spatial system, boundaries defined by the limits of that system
Ex of Functional region Newspaper service
Perceptual region based on impressions that we get from other cultures
Ex of Perceptual regionIraq is portrayed to us as a war zone because of what we see in the media
Ex of Formal region area in Europe where 90% of the people speak French
Relocation Diffusion Involves the actual movement of individuals who have already adopted the idea or innovation, and who carry it to a new, perhaps distant, locale, where they proceed to disseminate it. (Occurs most frequently through migration)
Ex of Relocation Diffusion Immigrants develop ethnic neighborhoods in their new country in order to maintain their culture
Geographic concept Ways of seeing the world spatially that are used by geographers in answering research questions. (Relative location, Absolute location, mental maps, diffusion, sense of place, and cultural landscape)
Geographers use remote sensing, fieldwork, GIS, GPS, and qualitative/quantitative techniques to explore linkages among people and places to explain differences across people, places, scales, and times
Environmental Determinism The view that the natural environment has a controlling influence over various aspects of human life, including cultural development. (climate is critical factor in how humans behave)
Climate and the Energy of Nations(1974) Written by Sidney Markham, thought that by tracing the migration of the center of power in the Mediterranean, he could detect the changing climates of that part of Europe
Isotherms lines connecting points of equal temperature values
Possibilism A viewpoint that holds that human decision making and technology, not the environment, is the crucial factor in cultural development.
Trend of Possibilism and Environmental Determinism in modern day geography possibilism is being more widely accepted and environmental determinism is being discredited.
Cultural Ecology An area of inquiry concerned with culture as a system of adaptation to environment
Political Ecology An area of inquiry fundamentally concerned with the environmental consequences of dominant political-economic arrangements and understandings.
Cultural geography is a subset of human geography looks at the ways culture is implicated in the full spectrum of topics addressed in human geography.
Created by: sserrano
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