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additive an electrolyte or a medication injected into an LVP or SVP solution for patient administration
ampule a small container made of thin glass that is used as a reservoir for certain single-dose parenteral medications
aseptic technique the manipulation of sterile products and devices in such a way as to avoid contamination by disease-causing organisms
antineoplastic drug a hazardous agent that reduces or prevents the growth of cancer cells
automated compounding device (ACD) a programmable, automated device to make complex IV preparations such as TPNs
beyond-use date the date or time after which a CSP is no longer sterile, stable, or effective
biological safety cabinet (BSC) a vertical laminar airflow hood that is used in the preparation of hazardous compounds, such as chemotherapy CSPs, and is designed to offer protection for the worker during the manipulation of these toxic chemicals
break ring a scored area on the neck of an ampule that marks the site where a technician will break the glass to access the ampule’s contents
catheter a device inserted into a vein for direct access to the cardiovascular system
central venous catheter (CVC) a catheter placed into a large vein deep in the body; also called a central line
chemotherapy compounding mat a thin mat placed on the BSC work surface to absorb accidental liquid spills during the compounding of chemotherapy drugs
chemotherapy dispensing pin a small plastic device used to relieve the negative pressure within a drug vial safely, while its built-in HEPA filter traps any drug particles or escaping fluid from the vial
closed system transfer device (CSTD) a small, disposable device that safely draws fluid from a vial into a syringe or injects fluid from a syringe into an IV or IVPB; this device protects the worker from exposure to hazardous drugs
compatibility the ability to combine two more base components or additives within a solution, without resulting in a change to the physical or chemical properties of the components or additives
compounding aseptic containment isolator (CACI) an enclosed vertical laminar airflow hood designed to protect sterile compounding personnel from exposure to hazardous chemicals during compounding procedures
coring an inadvertent introduction of a small piece of the rubber closure into the solution while removing medication from a vial
critical site the part of the supply item that includes any fluid-pathway surface or opening that is at risk for contamination by touch or airflow interruption
cytotoxic drug any drug that destroys cancer cells
diluent a sterile fluid added to a powder to reconstitute, dilute, or dissolve a medication
drip chamber the small, open space just below the spike adaptor where the drops of fluid from the IV bag into the tubing are counted by the nurse to determine the flow rate of the IV solution
drop factor the number of drops that an IV tubing delivers to provide 1 mL; this number may be used by nurses to calculate the IV flow rate when using certain types of primary IV tubing; also called drop set or drip set
drop set the calibration in drops per milliliter on IV sets
electrolyte solution a solution that contains dissolved mineral salts
filter a device used to remove contaminants such as glass, fibers, rubber cores, and bacteria from IV fluids
flexible tubing the tubing component of a sterile IV administration set that serves as a pathway for IV fluids and parenteral medications during patient administration
hypertonic solution a parenteral solution with a greater number of particles than the number of particles found in blood (greater than 285 mOsm/L); also called hyperosmolar, as in a TPN solution
hypotonic solution a parenteral solution with a fewer number of particles than the number of particles found in blood (less than 285 mOsm/L); also called a hypoosmolar solution
in-line filter a filter that is connected to, or contained within, an IV administration set; device is used to filter TPN fluid, thus preventing potential precipitates in the solution from being inadvertently administered to a patient
isotonic solution a parenteral solution with an equal number of particles as blood cells (285 mOsm/L); 0.9% normal saline is isotonic
IV administration set a sterile, pyrogen-free disposable device used to deliver IV fluids to patients
IV piggyback (IVPB) a small-volume IV infusion (50 mL, 100 mL, 250 mL) containing medications
IV push (IVP) the rapid injection of a medication in a syringe into an IV line or catheter in the patient's arm; also called bolus injection
large-volume parenteral (LVP) an IV fluid of more than 250 mL that may contain drugs, nutrients, or electrolytes
needle adaptor the end of the tubing (farthest from the universal spike adaptor) to which the needle is attached
normal saline (NS) a sterile solution containing a concentration of 0.9% sodium chloride in water
osmolality a measure of the number of milliosmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent
osmolarity a measure of the milliosmoles of solute per liter of solution (mOsm/L); for example, the osmolarity of blood is 285 mOsm/L; often referred to as tonicity for IV solutions
osmotic pressure the pressure required to maintain an equilibrium, with no net movement of solvent
pH value the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a solution; less than 7 is acidic and more than 7 is alkaline; the pH of blood is 7.4
priming the act of running fluid through IV tubing to flush out small particles and expel air from the tubing before medication administration
quality assurance (QA) program a feedback system to improve care by identifying and correcting the cause of a medication error or improper technique
roll clamp the hard, plastic device that provides compression on the tubing, thereby controlling the flow rate of the IV solution
small-volume parenteral (SVP) an IV fluid of 250 mL or less that is commonly piggybacked onto a patient's existing IV line for the infusion of medication
spike the sharp plastic end of IV tubing that is attached to an IV bag of fluid
tonicity the manner in which cells or tissues respond to surrounding fluid
total parenteral nutrition (TPN) an IV solution that provides long-term nutritional support for a specific patient population
vial a sterile medication container made of plastic or glass and sealed with a rubber top
vial-and-bag system a type of SVP in which a specially designed vial and diluent IVPB bag screw or snap together and are activated by the nurse just before patient administration of the medication
Y-site injection port a rigid piece of plastic with one arm terminating in a resealable port that is used to add medication to an IV
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