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Bio-Medical Ethics_Unit 2

Roe vs. Wade Roe legalized abortion in 1973 -difficult question of "when life begins" -unborn NOT persons (life doesn't begin until live birth)
Abortion Arguments -the constitution protects persons -fetuses are not persons in the whole sense -therefore, the constitution does not protect fetuses -the constitution guarantees liberty -liberty implies privacy -therefore, the constitution guarantees privacy
Casey Defends abortion. -Viability (surviving outside the mother) -potential life (is no less potential in the first weeks of pregnancy than it is at viability of afterword)
Marquis "Non-speciesists" Against abortion. -the essence of the wrongness in killing -future like ours
Roe's essential holding (3) parts 1)woman's right to choose abortion before viability w/o interference of State 2)State's power to restrict abortions after fetal viability,except for preg. that endanger mother 3)State has interest of preg. protecting health of woman and life of fetus
Due Process Law of Fourteenth Amendment Constitutional protection of the woman's decision to terminate her pregnancy derives from this law. It declares "deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, w/o due process of law".
Abortion Arguments (cont..) "speciesists argument" -it is always wrong to kill an innocent human -a fetus is a innocent human -therefore, it is always wrong to kill a fetus
Gregory "Non-speciesists". Against abortion. "Abortion and Animal Welfare" -physical sentient -inhumane treatment
Planned Parenthood vs. Casey "court UPHELD" Court UPHELD: -woman give informed consent prior to procedure -the info provided at least 24 hrs prior to procedure -the informed consent of one parent be required for minor, with by-pass, if necessary,
Planned Parenthood vs. Casey "court STRUCK DOWN" Court STRUCK DOWN: -the provision which required married women to sign a statement of notification to spouse.
Thomson "Personhood (fetus is a person)" SOME abortions are justified killings of a person
Brody "Speciesists" "Humanity(human being)" -the essence of human brain function ( as soon as a fetus develops brain function, it has become a human being). This is based on a neurological benchmark. -the fetus develops brain function by the 12th week
Thomas justifications Violinists,mother trapd in a tiny house(self defense),right to life(not to be killed unjustly),burglar & ppl seeds(contraceptive failure),convenience (NOT justified),good Samaritan(uninvited fetus),no right to death(unplug NOT slit throat,& right to refus
Humanity The human race; human beings collectively. Brody's Theory "on the Essence of Humanity"
Viability When the fetus can live outside of the mother. Casey affirmed Roes basic liberty is unchanged and unthreatened, and that there is no line other than viability which is more workable
Speciesism Humans are the MOST important species and testing on animals is ok bc it benefits humans.
Personhood Persons out to be treated as if they were full persons, however said that some human beings (embryos and fetuses) are not persons at all. "Possessive of rights"
Physical Sentience Simple lactal sensation "to feel when touched" experience pain/discomf Gregory theory "inhumane treatment" -fetuses older than 8 weeks are "able to feel" in ever-increasing degrees (therefore, fetuses older than 8 weeks ought not be aborted inhumanely)
Morality "Ethics". Principles concerning the distinction between right and wrong or good or bad.
Biological Of or relating to biology or living organisms
Abortion Intentionally causing the death of a fetus in utero, by either active or passive means.
Termination of pregnancy Intentional or spontaneous ending a pregnancy after which the fetus MAY "live OR die"
Total Extra-corporeal gestation The growing of a human body entirely outside of the female body
Active abortion Intentionally-caused death of a fetus in utero by direct assault in the body of the fetus itself.
Passive abortion Chemical or drug-induced abortion with no direct assault on the fetal body itself.
Passive infanticide Intentionally letting an infant die from neglect of its needs
Utilitarianism The moral theory which holds that actions are good or bad depending on their consequences
Surrogate motherhood Pregnancy undertaken for the purpose of gestating a child for another
Animal rights advocacy That moral position which holds that animals other than human, can have rights
Animal welfare advocacy That moral position which holds that ALL animals deserve humane treatment
Genetic mother The woman who contributes her own ovum for gestation
Gestational mother The woman who is pregnant
Gonzales vs Carhart Against Abortion. -Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act of 2003 -intact (D & E = dilation & evacuation) gruesome inhuman procedure
Infanticide Killing an infant. D & E (intact) Gonzales vs Carhart
Partial-Birth Abortion Act of 2003 Gonzales vs Carhart. -Act does NOT regulate these procedures taken place in first 3 months (first trimester)
D & E "dilation & evacuation" -usual abortion method to occur in the second trimester
Created by: ShannonLowe