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Ocular Diseases #9

Questions Strabismus and Amblyopia and some Laser

At what age does the normal infant obtain 20/20 VA? 3 years
What is form deprivation amblyopia? From opacity of ocular media
What is a comitant strabismus? degree of misalignment does not vary with age.
What are the 3 main categories of amblyopia etiology? Strabisimic, Refractive, Form deprivation
What is true of incomitant strabismus? Degree of misalignment varies with direction of gaze and muscles may not be functioning normally.
Define Heterotropia. Eyes are not aligned
Define Tropia Strabismus that is present constantly or intermittently without interrupting fusion
Define Phoria Strabismus that requires fusion to be interrupted before becoming manifest. Deviated eye will return to normal position.
Which way does the eye deviate with esotropia? Inward- towards the nose- nasally
Which way does the eye deviate with hyperphoria? Upward- superiorly
What is true about congenital esotropia Usually constant and large, cross fixation may occur, deficiency of abduction may occur
A child with significantly more esotropia at near than distance is called? Convergence excess (High AC/A Ratio)
What four things pertain to accommodative esotrpia? Moderate hyperopia, Usually comes on later, Hyperopic, Treat with glasses (Plus lenses)
What drug is used for cycloplegia for an infant? Atropine- Requires 1-2 days for full effect
What drug is used for cycloplegia in a child? Cyclopentolate (Cyclogyl)- Takes about 40 minutes for full effect
Cycloplegia is used to uncover _____________. Latent hyperopia
A person with greater Exo deviation at near than distance is Convergence insufficiency
How do you break up fusion? Cover one eye. An intermittent exotrope may also break fusion when they are not concentrating or day dreaming.
The Krimsky Test involves what? Pupillary light reflex and measurement with prism
The 4D prism test is used to what? Pick up small esotropia (pick up small absence of bifoveal fixation)
Cover-Uncover test determines ___________. Tells if you have a tropia or a phoria- defines which one.
Cross-Cover measures ______________. Amount of deviation. It will tell if you have a deviation but not whether it is a tropia or a phoria.
A child with a high AC/A Ratio has an ________________ deviation greater at ___________ than ___________________. ESO - Near - Far
A child with a high AC/A Ratio will most likely need ______________. Bifocals
What does the bielchowski head tilt test for? Superior Oblique (IV) Palsy
Patient looking to the left. Which muscle is affected? Which cranial nerve is involved? What are the chances it will clear without Rx? Left lateral rectus muscle. / VIth cranial nerve. / 98% clear within 6 months
Patient looking to the left and the left rectus muscle and VIth CN is involved. What is the most likely etiology in a patient over 45 years? Diabetes
Patient looking to the left and the left rectus muscle and VIth CN is involved. What is the most likely etiology in a child patient? Trauma
V-Pattern Strabismus is usually associated with ________. Exotropia
A patient with non-variable marked limitation of gaze in most directions, miosis, and ptosis, but lateral gaze still works, probably has a ______________. III Nerve Palsy
What is the topical anesthetic for performing forced duction? Proparacaine
A child with a VIth CN Palsy onset, what should be most likely considered? Trauma
An adult with recent onset Vth or VIth Nerve Palsy most likely would have ___________________. Diabetes Mellitus
What are laser treatments are used for POAG? SLT (Selective Laser Trabeculoplasty with YAG) and ALT (Argon Laser Trabeculoplasty with Argon laser)
What lasers is used for PRK or LASIK to ablate (remove)? Excimer laser
What laser is used to cut a LASIK flap, perform corneal relaxing incisions, and soften a cataract nucleus? Femtosecond laser
What lasers can perform an iridotomy? YAG and ARGO
What drug is used to prevent post laser treatment pressure spikes? Apraclonidine
Created by: Leequa