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Chapters 2 and 3

Mesopotamia, Egypt, and India

Ziggurat large temples in Sumerian city centers, in the shape of a step pyramid, homes are built to surround, enclosed by wall, place of rituals and storage for supplies, taller buildings mean that they are closer to the gods
Hieroglyphs - ideogram and phonetic Egyptian writing, found on walls and papyrus sheets, written using ink and a brush, more complex than cuneiform
Cuneiform wedge shaped Sumerian writing, first writing system in the world, initially pictographs but simplified into ideograms that represent both words and more complex ideas
Epic Poems - narrations of achievements and failures of a hero that embody nation’s conception of their past, first developed in Sumeria with the Epic of Gilgamesh
Yahweh all powerful god of the Hebrew people, basis for Judaism
Zoroastrianism based on the teachings of Zoroaster, emphasized the individual’s* responsibility to choose between good and evil
Pharoah leader of political and religious life in Old Kingdom of Egypt, “god-king”, commanded wealth, resources (Nile) and people
Phoenicians - “Purple People”, people of modern Lebanon, dominated trade in the Mediterranean, spread letter alphabet
Book of the Dead book that preserved Egyptian ideas of death and afterlife, explains that after safe journey through death the soul and body become part of the divine
Indo-European Language family - includes English, most languages of modern Europe, Greek, Latin, Persian, Hindi, Bengali, and Sanskrit, homeland of the language is central Asia
Rigveda - earliest collection of Indian hymns, ritual texts, and philosophical treatises, central source of info on early Aryans as festive warrior tribe, composed in Sanskrit
Sutras written teachings of Buddha, first transcribed in the second or first century BC
Samsara the transmigration of souls by a continual process of rebirth
Harappan Civilization first Indian civilization, Indus Valley civilization, flourished from 2500 to 2000 BC, literate, twice the size of Egypt or Sumeria, uniformity
Karma tally of good and bad deeds that determines the status of the individual’s next life
8fold path right knowledge, purpose, conduct, speech, livelihood, endeavor, awareness, and contemplation
Bodhisattvas Buddhas-to-be who stayed in the world after enlightenment to help others on the path to salvation
Caste System system of dividing society into four hereditary groups whose members interacted primarily within the group (especially with marriage), born and die in same caste, strongly engrained Brahmin (priests) Kshatriya (warriors, officials) Vaishya (merchants)
Dharma Sanskrit word for moral law, central both to Buddhist and Hindu teachings
Created by: 100001544986158