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Unit 2 Vocabulary

Age of Discovery and Impact of Global Trade

TermDefinition
Reasons for Exploration-3G's God, Gold, Glory
God exploration to spread religion- support for the spreading of Christianity
Gold exploration for monetary gain-the demand for gold, spices, and natural resources
Glory exploration for the purpose of having the most powerful nation- political and economic competition between European empires
Prince Henry of Portugal "the Navigator"; In 1419, he started a school of navigation where sea captains, mapmakers, and navigators could meet and exchange ideas
Caravel Renaissance invention---Ship with triangle-shaped sails that could sail against the wind
Compass A Chinese invented device that is used to find direction by means of a needle that always points north; Portuguese improved the design during the Renaissance
Rudder Renaissance invention---a flat, movable piece usually of wood or metal that is attached to a ship, boat, airplane, etc., and is used in steering
Christopher Columbus Sailed for Spain to find new routes to Asia; found the Americas in 1492
Treaty of Tordesillas A treaty that divided the un-colonized world into two areas. Portugal won the right to control the Eastern Hemisphere and Spain the Western Hemisphere.
Vasco da Gama Sailed for Portugal around Africa, to India and back. The Portuguese had found a sea route to Asia.
Ferdinand Magellan Spanish explorer who was the first to circumnavigate the world
Hernando Cortes Sailed for Spain to Mexico and defeated the powerful Aztec Empire
Francisco Pizarro Sailed for Spain to South America and defeated the mighty Incan empire
Conquistador Spanish name which means "conqueror"
Jacques Cartier Sailed for France and came across and named the St. Lawrence River and founded Montreal (Canada)
Francis Drake Sailed for England and was the second to sail around the world
trading companies Set up by the world-exporing Dutch and English, they were businesses run like governments, with the power to mint money, sign treaties, and raise their own armies
Catholic missionaries People motivated by their Roman Catholic religion to travel to places to persuade the indigenous (native) people to adopt their religion.
indigenous people People who are native, or born there, to a particular place
Constantinople Capital of the Eastern Roman Empire until it was conquered in 1453 by the Ottoman Empire
Istanbul The new name that the Ottoman Empire leaders gave to Constantinople when they conquered it in 1453
Taj Mahal Taj Mahal is regarded by many as the finest example of Mughal architecture, a style that combines elements from Islamic, Persian, Ottoman Turkish and Indian architectural styles
trading outposts Coastal (of India) trading centers set up by European nations who wanted to trade with the Mughal Empire
foreign enclaves special trading locations used by the Chinese to control trade with European nations and its potential cultural influences on their empires
policy of isolation Until the mid-1800's Japan essentially closed its doors to any trade with European empires
shogun a military leader (highest rank) in Japan; seen as the real rulers of Japan
convert a person who has been persuaded to change their religious faith or other beliefs
Columbian Exchange an exchange of products and resources between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres (Old World and the New World)
Smallpox an acute contagious viral disease, with fever and pustules usually leaving permanent scars. It, and other diseases, killed millions of native Americans between 1492-1600
Cash crop A crop, such as tobacco or sugar, grown for direct sale rather than for a community's immediate living needs.
African Slaves Africans brought to the Americas for their farming skills and because of their race and sold into slavery
Plantation system 17th century Europeans divided land in the colonies into plantations or large farms. Crops grown on these plantations such as tobacco, rice, sugar cane and cotton required many workers.
Triangular trade The triangular trade pattern that linked Europe, Africa, and the Americas through the trade of slaves, sugar, and rum.
Middle Passage Harsh and cruel voyage where Africans were carried across the Atlantic ocean to the Americas where they were sold into slavery.
Precious metals gold and silver
Import a commodity, article, or service brought in from another country for sale
Export a commodity, article, or service sold to another country
Mercantilism An economic system in which a mother country (the original country) uses and takes the resources from its colony
Mother Country the country where people who live in a colony or former colony came from
Colony a country or area under the full or partial political control of another country, typically a distant one, and occupied by settlers from that country
Bank a financial establishment that invests money deposited by customers, pays it out when required, makes loans at interest, and exchanges currency
Commercial Revolution period of European economic expansion, colonialism, and mercantilism lasted from approximately the 16th century until the early 18th century
Balkan Peninsula "Balkan" comes from a Turkish word meaning "a chain of wooded mountains". The area of southeastern Europe surrounded by the Adriatic Sea to the west,the Mediterranean Sea (including the Ionian and Aegean seas) to the south and the Black Sea to the east.
Textile a type of cloth or woven fabric
Closed country policy Japan largely closed itself off from the rest of the world for most of the 16th and 17th centuries in response to European exploration .
Created by: Room 211