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Chapter 6

Cardiovascular System

aorta largest artery o body
aortic valve between aorta and left ventricle
arteriole tiny artery connecting to capillary
artery thick, carries oxygenated blood; away from heart
atrioventricular bundle/His fibers in interventricular septum; transfer charges in hearts conduction system
atrioventricular node sends charge to bundle of His
atrioventricular valve one of two; control blood flow
atrium upper chamber
bicuspid/mitral valve left side of heart
blood fluid; circulates through body; delivers nutrients
blood pressure force of blood against artery walls
blood vessel passageway which blood travels
capillary smallest blood vessle exchange point between artery and veins
carbon dioxide waste material in veins
cardiac cycle contraction and relaxation of heart
cardiovascular relating to the heart
carotid artery to head and neck
conduction system sends electrical charge; causes contraction and relaxation of heart
coronary artery oxygen rich blood to heart
depolarization contracting state of conduction system
diastole relaxation phase of heart beat
ductus arteriousus fetal;blood bypasses non functionl lungs
ductus venosus fetal; bpass liver
endocardium lines chambers and valves; innermost layer
endothelium secretes substance into blood
epicardium outermost layer
femoral blood to thigh
foramen ovale opeing in septum in fetus; closes at birth
heart receives blood and sends blood
inferior vena cava large vein; lower part of body to right atrium
left atrium upper left chamber
left ventricle lower left chamber
lumen inside artery which blood flows
myocardium between epicardium and endocardium
pacemaker sinoatrial node; device regulates heart rhythym
pericardium protective covering o heart
polarization resting state
popliteal supplies blood behind knee
pulmonary artery one of two; carries blood low in oxygen from heart to lungs
pulmonary valve controls blood flow between right ventricle and pulmonary arteries
pulmonary vein one of four; oxygenate blood; from lungs to LA
pulse phythmix expansion and contraction of blood vessel
repolarization recharging state; transition from contraction to resting
right atrium upper right chamber
right ventricle lower right chamber
saphenous vein deoxygenated blood from legs
semilunar valve one of two; prevent back flow into aorta
septum pertition between left and right chambers of heart
sinoatrial node send electrical impulses to heart causing contraction
sinus rhythm normal heart beat
superior vena cava vein transport blood from upper body to hear
systole contraction
tricuspid valve atrioventricular valve on right side of heart
valve slow or prevent fluid from back flow
vein deoxygenated blood to heart
ventricle two lower chambers of heart
venule tiny vein connecting to capillary
angio blood vessel
aorto aorta
arterio, artero artery
athero fatty matter
atrio atrium
cardio heart
hemangio blood vessel
pericardio pericardium
phlebo vein
sphygmo pulse
thrombo blood clot
vaso blood vessel
veno vein
Acg acceleraor globulin
AF atrial fibrillation
ami acute mocardial infarction
as aortic stenosis
asd asd atrial septal defect
ashd arterioschlerotic heart disease
av atrioventricular
ascvd arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease
bo blood pressure beats per minute
cabg coronary artery bypass graft
cad cornary artery disease
cath catheter
ccu coronary care unit
chd coronary heart disease
chf congestive heart failure
co cardiac output
cpk creatine phosphokinase
cpr cardiopulmonary resuscitation
cva cerebrovascular accident
cvd cardiovascular disease
dic disseminated intravascular coagulation
dsa digital subtraction angiography
dvt deep venous thrombosis
ecg, ekg electrocardiogram
echo echocardiogram
ett exercise tolerance test
got glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase
hdl high density lipoprotein
hr heart rate
ldh lactate dehydrogenase
ldl low density lipoprotein
lvh left ventricular hypertrophy
mi mitral insufficiency
mr mitral regurgitation
ms mitral stenosis
muga multiple gated acquisition scan
mvp mitral valve prolapse
pac premature atrial contraction
ptca percutaneous trnsluminal cornary angioplasty
pvs premature ventricular contraction
sa sinoaatrial
sv stroke volume
tc total cholestrol
tpa tissue plasminogen activator
vldl very low density lipoprotein
vsd ventricular spetal defect
vt ventricular tachycardia
angiocardiography viewing of heart and its major blood vessels by exray after injection of contrasat medium
angiography viewing of major blood vessels by xray after injection of contrast medium
arteriography specific artery xray
aortagraphy aorta xray
auscultation listening to body sounds; stehtoscope
cardiac catheterization pass thin catheter thru vessle to take samples
cardiac enzyme test/serum enzyme test blood tests determine levels of exnzyme during myocardial infarction
cardiac MRI heart view by magnetic resonance imaging
cardiac scan heart muscle at work; injectino of radioactive substance
cholesterol faty substance; circulate sthru bloodstream
digitla subtraction angiography two angiograms done with diff dyes
doppler ultrasound test blood flow in vessels
echocardiography sound waves to produce images of heart
ejection fraction percentage of volume of contents of lv ejected
electrocardiography electrocardiograph in diagnosis
holter monitor protable device provicdes 24 hr electrocardiogram
lipid profile levels of lipids in blood
muga radioactive scan showing heart function
phebograph vein by xray
pet scan nuclear image measures movement of heart areas
sonography images based on echoes of waves against structures
sphygmomanometer measures blood pressure
stress test measures hear rate and blood pressure while person exercises
venography vein xray
ventriculogram xray of ventricle
aneurysm ballooning of artery wall caused by weakness in wall
angina (pectoris) chest pain, lower oxygen/blood supply to heart
aortic regurgitation backward flow through faulty aortic valve
aortic stenosis narrowing of aorta
arrhythmia irregularity in rhythm of heart beat
arteriosclerosis hardening of arteries
arteritis inflammations of arteris
asystole cardiac arrest
atheroma fatty deposit in wall of artery
atherosclerosis hardening of arteris casued by build up of atheromas
atrial fibrillation irregulat fast heart beat caused by overstimulation
atrioventricular block blockage of electical impuls from node to ventricles
bacterial endocarditis bacterial inflammation of inner heart lining
bradycardia heart rate fewer than 60 bpm
bruit murmur
cardiac arrest sudden stopping of heart
cardiac tamponade compressino of heart caused by fluid accumulation
cardiomyopathy disease of heart muscle
claudication limping caused by inadequate blood supply
coarctation of aorta abnormal narrowing of aorta
congenital heart disease heart disease from birth
congestive heart tfailur inability of hert to pump enough blood; collection of fluid in lungs
constriction compression or narrowing of vessel
coronary artery disease reduce flow of blood thru arteries
cyanosis blusish colration of skin; inadequate oxygen in blood
deep vein thrombosis formation of clot in dep vein
dysrhythmia abnormal heart rhythm
embolus mass of foreign materical blocking vessel
endocarditis inflammation of endocardium
essntial hypertension high blood pressure without cause
fibrillation chaotic irregular heart beat
flutter regular but rapid heart beat
gallop triple sound of heart beat
hemorrhoids varicose condition in anal region
hypertension conic condition;> 140/90; high blood pressure
hypertensivve heart disease caused by high blood pressure
hypotension chronic condition with below normal pressure
infarct necrosis caused by sudden drop in supply of blood
intermittent claudication attacks of limping; ischemia of muscles
intracardiac tumor within one of heart chambers
ischemia blood insufficiency caused by obstruction
mitral insufficiency backward flow to damage mitral vavle
mitral stenosis abnoram narrowing at opening of mitral valve
mitral valve prolapse back flow into left atrium due to protrusion of cusps into la
murmur soft heart humming heard between normal beats
myocardial infarction drop in supply of blood in heart muscles
myocarditis inflammation of myocardium
necrosis death of tissue; irreversible damage
occlusion closing of vessel
palpitations uncomfortable pulsations of heart; thumping in chest
patent ductus arteriosus condition at birth; duct between aorta and pulmonary artery remains open
perfusion deficit lack of flow thru vesel
pericarditis inflammation of pericardium
peripheral vascular disease in lower extremities; blockage
petechiae minute hemorrhages in skin
phlebitis inflammation of vein
plaque build up of solid material
pac atrial contraction before normal impulse
pvc ventricle conrtactions before normal impulse
pulmonary artery stenosis narrowing of pulmonary artery; prevent lungs from receive blood from heart
pulmonary edema abnormal accumulatino of fluid in lungs
raynauds phenonmenon spasm in arteries of fingers; numbness
rheumatic heart disease heart valve damaged untreat streptococcal infection
risk factor various factors increase prob of idsease
rub rictional sound heard btween heart beats
secondary hypertension known cause; kidney disease
septal defect congenital abnorality opening of septum
stenosis narrowing of vesssel
tachycardia heart rate greater tham 100 bpm
tetralogy of fallot 4 congenital heart abnormalities appearing together cause deoxy blood to enter systemic circulate
thrombophlebitis imflammation of vein with thrombus
thrombosis presence of thrombus in vessel
thrombotic occulusion narrowing caused by thrombus
thrombus blood clot
tricuspid stenosis narrowing of opeing of tricuspid valve
valvulitis inflammatino of heart valve
varicose vein dilated, enlarges, twisted vein
vegetation clot on heart valve
anastomosis surgical connection of vessels to allow blood to flow thru
angioplasty opening of blocked vessel
angioscopy viewing o interio of vessel
arteriotomy surgical incision into artery; remove clot
atherectomy removal of atheroma
balloon catherter dilation insert catherter to open passage
bypass creat new passage for blood; detour
cariopulmonary bypass divert flow from heart thru heart lung machine and back
embolectomy removal of embolus
endarterectomy removal of disease portion of lining of artery
endovascular surgery procedures done during cardiac catheterization
fontan operation creat bypass from ra to main pulmonary artery
heart transplant implantation of heart of person who died to diseased heart person
hemorrrhoidectomy removal of hemorrhoids
intravascular stent stent place in vessel to allow blood to flow freely
phlebotomy drawing of blood from vein by small incision
stent implant device to hold something
thrombectomy removal of thrombus
valve replacement replacement of coronary valve
valvotomy incision in valve to remove obstruction
valvuloplasty surgical reconstruction of valve
venipuncture small punture to vein
coronary vasodilators dilates arteries; used to treat infartion, congestive heart failure, angina
beta blockers reduce contraction streath, lower blood pressure; slow heartbeat
calcium channel blockers inability of calicium to enter heart muscle; reduce heart rate; dilate arteries to enhance flow
thrombolytics dissolve blood clots
bile acid sequestrants lipid lowering meds
lipid mlowering medications reduces lipids and cholesterol
centrally acting hypertensive agents; antihypertensive decrease blood pressure by brain control centers
direct acting vasodilators lower pressureby relaxing vessels
perippherally acting hypertensive agents lower pressure by nerves involved
ace inhibitors ease heart pumping by dilation of arteries
angiotensin II receptor blockers block action that causes vessels t narrow
diuretics promote removal of water to lower pressure and relieve edema
inotropic agents increase amount of blood pumped by inscreasing squeezing strength
antiarrhythimics alter electrical flow
anticoagulations; anticlotting reduce proteins involved
antiplatelet meds reduce ability of platelets to clot
hemorrheologic agents decrease viscosity of blood
antianginal relieve attacks of angina
cardiotonic congestive heart failur; increase force of contraction
heparin anti coagulant present in body
nitrate dilate veins; control angina
tissue type plasminogen activator prevents thrombus from forming
Created by: cs3516