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WH: CH 4

Enlightenment & Revolution (New)

TermDefinition
a time period that included Philosophes, secularism, rationalism ENLIGHTENMENT
English philosopher who wrote Leviathan; believed in social contract wherein the individual exchanges rights for group safety; believed in absolute power THOMAS HOBBES
English philosopher who wrote Two Treatises of Government; believed in a social contract that would not limit individual freedoms (life, liberty, property);no absolute power JOHN LOCKE
Philosophers and critics of society during the Enlightenment PHILOSOPHE
Enlightenment philosopher whose philosophy included the idea of separation of powers and a system of checks and balances MONTESQUIEU
Enlightenment philosopher who said “I (may) disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.”(freedom of speech); also freedom of religion VOLTAIRE
Enlightenment philosopher who edited/published The Encyclopedia DIDEROT
A collection of articles and essays that described the ideas of the Enlightenment ENCYCLOPEDIA
Enlightenment philosopher who felt the republic was the ideal form of government ROUSSEAU
Enlightenment philosopher who supported women’s rights WOLLSTONECRAFT
the system by which people, businesses and government make money and spend money ECONOMICS
French word meaning "to let be";economic policy that believes government should not interfere in business LAISSEZ FAIRE
wrote the Wealth of Nations;believed in laissez faire economics and supply and demand ADAM SMITH
economic theory proposed by Adam Smith; as supply increase and demand remains the same, price will decrease; if demand increases and supply remains the same, price increase SUPPLY AND DEMAND
restricting access to ideas and information CENSORSHIP
informal social gatherings at which writers, artists, philosophes exchanged ideas SALONS
grand,formal,ornate style of art,architecture and furniture BAROQUE
lighter,elegant style of art, architecture and furniture featuring delicate shells and flowers ROCOCO
composers of the Enlightenment who wrote opera, sonatas, and symphonies BACH, HANDEL, HAYDN, MOZART
plays set to music OPERA
economic belief that colonies exist for the benefit of the home country; colonies supply raw materials and are market for finished goods MERCANTILISM
war between France & England over territory in North American colonies FRENCH & INDIAN WAR
treaty that ended the French & Indian War; resulted in English possession of all land east of Mississippi River TREATY of PARIS (1763)
king of England at the time of American Revolution GEORGE III
acts passed by British Parliament to tax colonies on molasses and sugar, wills and legal documents SUGAR ACT and STAMP ACT
reason English colonists in America cited for rebellion NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION
event in British colonies that resulted in the death of five colonists by British soldiers BOSTON MASSACRE
Rebellion by American colonists against the British East India Company receiving a monopoly on tea shipped to the colonies BOSTON TEA PARTY
Gathering in Philadelphia of delegates from 12 of the 13 colonies; sent demands to Parliament FIRST CONTINENTAL CONGRESS
Commander of the patriot forces GEORGE WASHINGTON
Location of “The shot heard ‘round the world” LEXINGTON & CONCORD
North American colonists who resisted British taxation and felt the colonies should declare independence PATRIOTS
North American colonists who wanted to remain loyal to Britain; Tories LOYALISTS
Gathering of delegates who wrote and signed Declaration of Independence SECOND CONTINENTAL CONGRESS
Wrote the Declaration of Independence THOMAS JEFFERSON
Document created at the Second Continental Congress, written by Thomas Jefferson, that stated the intentions and demands of the American colonists; based on the philosophy of John Locke DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE
government created by and subject to the will of the people POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY
Final battle of the American Revolution where Cornwall (British) surrendered YORKTOWN
Treaty that settled the American Revolution TREATY OF PARIS (1783)
first constitution of the United States; it proved too weak to be effective (no president, unilateral legislature) ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION
division of federal and state government into three independent branches (executive, legislative, judicial) SEPARATION OF POWERS
plan of government CONSTITUTION
Branch of government that enforces the law EXECUTIVE
Branch of government that creates the law LEGISLATIVE
Branch of government that interprets the law JUDICIAL
system which ensures that one branch of government does not accumulate too much power CHECKS AND BALANCES
First 10 Amendments of the US Constitution; ratified in 1791 BILL OF RIGHTS
Created by: dotsspots