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Middle East Test

TermDefinition
Bedouin Arabic Speaking camel herding nomads
Suq Bazaar, or place of commerce
Shia Muslims following Caliph Ali and his successors
Wajh Group Honor; Concept of great importance in the maintenance of group and individual prestige
Mosque Islamic House of worship
Shahada Declaration of faith; "There is no god but Allah and Muhammad
Kaaba Shrine dedicated to Allah; Destination of the muslim pilgrim
Imam Religious teacher; Leader of services; Leader of Shia community
Zakat One of the Five Pillars of Islam;Faithful are obligated to support the unfortunate and the needy
Sadaqa Voluntary chartiable contribution to bring religious merit to the donor
Ramadan One of the lunar months of the Muslim Calendar; Fasting during daylight hours is one of the Five Pillars of Islam
Hajj (Hajji) Pilgrimage to Mecca; One of the Five Pillars of Islam
Koran Written word of Allah as revealed through his prophet Muhammad
Sura Chapter in the Koran
Hadith Collected reports about the life of the Prophet
Sharia Muslim Legal code; Coded by various systems of interpretation or fiqh
Sunni Largest "Orthodox" division of Islam
Ulema Muslim scholars; Function as religious leaders; Ulema are not organized into a clergy and do not claim any special powers of Sanctity beyond their studies
Quarish Powerful Arab tribe that controlled Mecca during the time of Muhammad
Hijaz Mountainous region of the Arabian Penisula adjacent to the Red Sea; Includes the cities of Mecca and Medina
Hijira Migration of those faithful to Muhammads preaching from Mecca to Medina
Umma Worldwide community of Islam; Commands muslims loyalty
Jihad "Striving" on behalf of Islam. Obligation of the Faithful extend to the Umma and protect it from its enemies either by actual warfare or by spiritual struggle.
Djimmi Religious community given special recognition in Islam; Particularly Jews and Christians; Immunity from forced conversion but had to pay higher taxes than muslims
Caliph Successors of Muhammad as leaders of the Umma
Riddah Wars of Apostasy; Fought after the death of Muhammad forcing rebellious Arab tribes to continue their allegiance to Islam
Diwan Record listing those fighting for the Umma; Determines shares of conquered valuable goods
Umayyad One of the most powerful of the Arabic families at the time of Muhammad; Ummayad Caliphate was founded at Damascus
Kharijite Early puritanical movement in Islam; Initially allied with Ali; Radical democratic group ventually turned against him and assassinated him
Abbasid Important Hasemite Arab family; Founded the Abbasid Caliphate at Baghdad; Dynasty saw the highest development of the Caliphate during what is recognized as the golden age of Islam
Ottoman Empire Founded by the Turkish Leader Osman; Ottoman State gave rise to the last great Islamic Caliphate
Ghazi Defender of the faith, Usually as a soldier
Millets Religious groups given official status in the Ottoman Empire
Mameluks Slave Dynasty of Circassians; Ruled Egypt until their destruction they alone ruled Egypt giving only nominal allegiance to the Ottoman Sultan
Sufism Movement pervasive in Islam based on mythical experience; Cultivated the inner ecstatic aspect of Islam; Appeal has greatly aided the spread of Islam in some parts of the world
Madrasah Schools of religion; supported by Waqf; Often associated with a prominent urban Mosque
Fiqh Islamic jrisprudence; Literally an "Understanding" of Sharia Law; Schools of Fiqh are Shafi, Hanafi, Hanbali; Maliki
Waqf Religious endowments that suport a specific institution devoted to good works such as a Madrasah
Mahdi Messiah or redeemer in Islam; expected to come to earth in the final days to lead the faithful to their war against the Infidel
Ismailis Followers of Ismail; the Seventh Imam of the Shia tradition; Marked by a more esoteric and mystical emphasis than other branches of shiism and Includes the Qarmations
Muharram Month of the lunar year; Commemorates Husseins Martyrdom; Emotional event for shia community
Tariqahs Specific order of Sufism, with specified secret paths to mystical ecstacy
Pir Recognized master in a Sufi Tariqah or order
Qarmations Long lived communal movement within the Ismaili sect
Muwahhidun "Unitarians" fundamentalist sect that prevails in Saudi Arabia
Wahhabi Less prefered term for Muwahhidun
Tanzimat Series of attempted reforms in the Ottoman Empire in response to growing European dominance
Muhummad Ali Ruler of Egypt; Initiated major reforms which were blunted by a combination of European and Ottoman Strategies; First of the great modernizers in the Arab world
Fellahin Peasants or manual Laborers
Maronites Moniphysite Christian sect
Druze Mystical Nonorthodox muslim sect
Sanussi Influential Sufi order in North Africa
Najd Extremely arid north-central region of the Arabian Penisula
Mujtahid Religious leader, preacher, and scholar the equivalent of the Sunni Ulema
Al Afghani Egyptian school teacher who became one of the first modern nationalist writers
Baath Arab socialist Resurrection Part; POlitical party dedicated to Arab nationalism and socialism. Controlled Syria and Iraq until the ouster of Saddam Hussein
Hizbolla Iranian supported radical Shia group in Lebanon Often associated with terrorist activities rival of the AMAL
Ashkenazim Term used to describe jews of Europe origin
Sephardim "Oriental" Jews of Spanish, African, Asian or MIddle Eastern origin
Intifadah Uprising of Palestinians against Israeli occupations and rule in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank. First rebellion began in 1987
Created by: USMCWItte