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essentials-module 2

permafrost soil that is permanently frozen
city-states a city that is also an independent nation; many existed in ancient Greece.
policies one of the methods and plans a government uses to do its work.
feudalism a kind of society in which people worked and sometimes rough for a local lord in return for protection and the use of land.
renaissance a period of European history that include a rebirth of interest in learning and art, peaking in the 1500s.
monarchy the ruler of a kingdom of empire such as a king or queen.
middle classes a group that included traders, merchants, and others who were economically between the poor and the very rich.
revolution a complete change in government often achieved through violent means.
colony a territory ruled by another nation.
industrial revolution a period in eropean history during the early 1800s when products once made by hand in homes beganto be made by machines in factories.
imperialism the control by one country of the political and economic life of another country or region.
nationalism pride in one's country; an elevation of one's own nation above others
alliances a mutual agreement between countries to protect and defend each other
westernization the adoption of western culture, as is taking place i9n Russia and many eastern European countries.
czar title or Russian emperors before the formation of the soviet union.
cold war a time of tension between the united states and the former soviet union without actual war; it lasted from about 1945 to 1991.
civil war a war between groups within a country.
immigrants a person who moves from one country to another.
parliament a group of elected officials in great Britain who help govern by deciding about takes and other laws.
representatives a person who represents, or stands for, a group of people, usually in government.
reunification the process of becoming unified again.
communism a theory of government in which property such as farms and factories is owned by the government for the benefit of all citzens; a political system in which the central government controls all aspects of citzens' lives.
prairies the central and southern parts of the north eropean plain were once covered by grasslands, called prairies.
tundra a treeless plain in artic areas with permanently frozen ground; during the brief season when the topsoil thaws, grasses and mosses grow.
Created by: aprilspoelhof