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History Midterm 2

Mrs. Hughes' World History Midterm 2

Leonardo da Vinci's major works of art The Last Supper and the Mona Lisa
Why is Leonardo da Vinci called an example of a renaissance man He was skilled in many different fields
What was Lorenzo de Medici personal background Wealthy and powerful family
What ways did Lorenzo de Medici contribute to the renaissance Gave money to artists, intellectuals, musicians
Michelangelo's most famous works Pieta, David, and the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
Ideas that were emphasized in humanism Personal achievement
What prior cultures influenced humanism Greek and Roman cultures
Why was Gutenberg' s invention of the printing press described as revolutionary It allows more people to be able to read because there were more books
What major reform movement in opposition to the Catholic Church occurred following Martin Luther's stand against indulgences Protestant Reformation
When did Martin Luther make his list of grievances public 1517
Where did Martin Luther make his list of grievances public Church doors
What did the Edict of Worms decree about Martin Luther Declared him an outlaw and condemned his writings
Why did the Catholic Church convene the Council of Trent Pope Paul III recognized the need to redefine the doctrines of the Catholic faith
What did the delegates of the Council of Trent address Corruption of the clergy, financial abuse, sale of indulgences, and training of priests
What did the delegates of the Council of Trent say about achieving salvation Use mystery and magnificent ceremonies to achieve salvation
What two European countries returned to the Catholic Church following the pronouncements pic the Council of Trent Austria and Poland
Who advanced the idea that the end justifies the means Niccolo Machiavelli
The ultimate goal of Prince Henry and early Portuguese explorers Find a water route around Africa to Asia
The ultimate goal of early English explorers Find a shorter route to Asia
The ultimate goal of early Dutch explorers Find new trading partners and new products
The ultimate goal of early French explorers Find a passage to Asia
How did the renaissance contribute to the Age of Exploration Spirit of discovery and innovation was awakened in Europe
On what was the colonial Spanish economy largely based Mining of gold and silver
What was the basic principle of the economic system called mercantilism A nation's strength depended on its wealth
How was mercantilism measured Amount of gold and silver a nation possessed
What the main goals did mercantilists propose for creating a favorable balance of trade Reduce the amount of goods imported from other countries by placing tariffs, encourage exports that could sell for high prices, and control overseas sources of raw materials and precious metals
What new class of Europeans was created out of the increased business activity that came with colonization Wealthier merchants
How can a growing population and a scarcity of goods lead to inflation Rising demands lead to higher prices
How did the drive to establish colonies lead to the growth of capitalism Individuals could become wealthy through overseas trade by selling goods in the colonies and impact raw materials
Why did many planets in the Americas begin to use African slaves in place of Native Americans for labor on plantations European diseases killed millions of them
Why did some Native Americans in Mexico help the Spanish conquistador, Cortes, conquer Moctezuma and his Aztec empire Aztecs were unpopular with the peoples they had conquered
Which leader took the areas of Hungary, the eastern Mediterranean and the North African coast for the Ottoman empire Suleyman I
What was generally true about religious freedom according to Islamic law in the Ottoman empire Practice any religion
Who were the Jannisaries Christian boys that were converted to Muslims and trained to be warriors
Why did the Choson king isolate Korea from the rest of the world To protect Korea from invasions from Japan and China
How did Akbar creates unity throughout most of India with regards to religion and taxation Abolished taxes on Non-Muslims and practiced religious tolerance
Why did the Ming emperors decide to isolate China Protect Chinese traditions
What factors in the 1600s in China led to famine, hardships, rebellions, and the decline of the Ming dynasty Weak rulers, corruption, and higher taxes
The things that emperor Kangxi did during his rule that helped the Qing dynasty flourish Reduced taxes for peasants, expanded the empire to parts of Central Asia, supports the arts and sciences, and entertained Jesuit priests
Describe the trade conditions between Japan and Europe by 1650 Only trade with Dutch
Two significant results of Christian missionary activity in Japan Many Japanese became Christians and Christians were persecuted
The relationships between the weakness of the ruling sultans and the decline of the Ottoman empire Heirs were locked away before ruling, and had no world experience
The argument that absolute monarchs used to claim that their power could not be challenged Divine right
France's Louis XIV's greatest ambitions Build up the military and expand territory
Why was the Edict of Nantes a remarkable document Represented a clear break with the conformity of the past because people did not have to share a religion
The goal of France's Louis XII in regards to French nobles and Huguenots Reduce power of the Huguenots and suppress nobles
The decision by Charles I that caused the start of the English Civil War He arrested puritan leaders for treason
The things that Louis XIV did to create his image of power Built the Palace of Versailles, smashed the power of the Huguenots, and belittled the nobles have himself the title of Sun King
Why were William and Mary crowned king and queen of England Mary's father, James II, was a strong Catholic who wanted to rule as an absolute monarch
What was William and Mary's ascension to the throne was called what Glorious Revolution
The main goal of the Peter I for Russia Westernization
The ways that that establishment pic St. Petersburg was significant A warm water port that was open all year increased trade and connected Russia to the west
The decision in 1953 by Henry IV that allows him to claim the French throne Converted to Catholicism
The scientist that supported the heliocentric theory of Copernicus, built the first telescope in 1609, and posed theories that brought him into direct conflict with the Catholic Church Galileo Galilee
The new five-step approach in the mid-1500s that allowed scientists and scholars to gain new scientific knowledge Scientific Method
The Enlightenment philosopher that argued that people had the right to overthrow a government that does not protect their natural rights John Locke
Heliocentric theory The idea that the earth and planets revolve around the sun
The scientist that published The Mathematical Principals of Natural Philosophy Sir Isaac Newton
The twelve volume work of Denis Diedrot in order to promote knowledge during the Enlightenment Encyclopedia
Philosopher who wrote Leviathan believed people need a government under an absolute monarchy in order to impose order, created social contract, and believed people were not good by nature Thomas Hobbes
What did Montesquieu see as a key element in the best form of government Separation of powers
The French philosopher that attacked injustice wherever he saw it Voltaire
The philosopher that believed that people were born good and corrupted by society, wrote the Social Contract, believed that the government should work for the common good, and Thai people should give up some freedoms for the benefit of the community Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Enlightenment philosopher who demanded equal rights for women Mary Wollstonecraft
The ideas that helped inspire the French Revolution and became one of the major causes of the revolution Enlightenment ideas
Why did Louis XVI call a meeting of the Estates General to be held in the spring of 1789 To get approval for a new tax on the third estate
The rights granted in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen did not extend to which group in French society Women
How did Europeans outside of France react to the execution of Louis XVI With horror
How did nations outside of France react to reign of terror Increased opposition
Two significant reasons why many French peasants came to oppose the revolution Anti-clerical movement
What became a significant legacy of the French Revolution in many parts of the world outside of France Common people could change the world
The Mexican-American War was a dispute over Texas
why did the people of France, who had recently overthrown their king, welcome Napoleon he promised order and stability
throughout the Napoleonic Wars, which nation was France's greatest enemy Great Britain
what was restricted by the continental system trade with Great Britain
which European campaign was a disaster for Napoleon and resulted in the first of his two exiles from France Russia
the main goal of the Congress of Vienna in its attempt to prevent another French invasion of its neighbors strengthen the countries around France
first estate clergy
second estate nobles
third estate peasants, artisans, and bourgeoisie
the leader of the Committee of Public Safety during the Reign of Terror Maximilien Robespierre
journalist, leader of the sans culottes, one of the most radical leaders of the National Convention; he advocated violence to protect the French Revolution Jean-Paul Marat
a significant factor in allowing Britain to be the first country to industrialize colonialism
the most important natural resource for the early development of industry in Great Britain water
an effect of the factory system a new middle class
what did mass production lead to for consumers there were more products to buy
the two things that Marx and Engels believed capitalism would lead to that would ultimately cause capitalism to collapse poverty and rebellion
the two types of labor groups the led to the growth of the middle class managers and mid-level employees
a negative result in the Unites States that was caused by the growth of the textile industry in Great Britain the spread of slavery
the positive effects that industrialization had on the middle class more leisure time and money
the basis of the Luddite movement opposing machines that were hurtful to the commonality
according to Marx and Engels, establishing a society based on cooperation and equal distribution of wealth would require a __________ revolution
what delayed industrialization in France British secrecy, French Revolution,and Napoleonic Wars
what delayed industrialization in Germany lack of central government
why did the British government largely ignore the problems of factory workers, the poor, and the unemployed in the early 1800s they did not see regulating businesses as their jobs
a realistic writer that revealed the unfair treatment of women within families in his play, A Doll's House Henrik Ibsen
how did the radio differ from the telegraph the telegraph required wires, whereas the radio did not
how did the Model T differ from earlier automobiles used interchangeable parts and it was affordable
the three significant ways electric power impacted industry factories no longer had to rely on large steam engines, water, or sunlight
the scientist that developed vaccines for anthrax and rabies Pasteur
the architectural concept by William LeBaron Jennny that produced a solution to scarce living and working space in cities skyscraper
negative effect of understanding bacteria biological warfare
two crucial ideas upon which Albert Einstein's theory of relativity was based no particle of matter could move faster than the speed of light and motion could only be measured from the viewpoint of a particular observer
how Henry Ford's motor car for the multitude change life in America Americans had more freedom because they were affordable
why was Freud especially interested in the study of dreams he felt that repressed thoughts revealed in dreams could cause mental illness
five reforms that improved cities sanitation, clean water, transportation, parks, and electricity
the scientist that made discoveries that made Joseph Lister's work with an antiseptic possible Crawford W. Long
the development that was essential to the expansion of cities and the growth of the suburbs public transportation
two factors that accounted for the steep decline in Ireland's population between 1780 and 1920 Irish potato famine and immigration
a significant outcome of the Congress of Vienna with regards to King Louis XVIII he was restored to the throne in France
the movement that had a long lasting impact and gave rise to a call for a Jewish homeland which grew out of the Dreyfus affair Zionism
what did Emmeline Pankhurst, Benjamin Disraeli, and the Chartists have in common all suffrage reformers
the war that the United States gained territory in 1848 The Mexican American War
the result of the Mexican-American War America gained large territory to the southwest
how did the Manifest Destiny affect Native Americans they were forced to move westward to reservations
how did Brazilian colonists win their independence from Portugal Pedro I declared independence
the first leader of an independent Brazil Pedro I
the Latin American country that achieved independence wit the least violence and bloodshed Brazil
the Latin American revolutionary leader wanted to unite all of South America into the Federation of the Andes Simon Bolivar
the Latin American group that was most likely to become revolutionaries creoles because they had fewer rights
how did Spanish authorities ultimately treat both Miguel Hidalgo and Jose Maria Morelos they were executed
how Agustin de Iturbide won support and became emperor of Mexico he brought creoles, pennisulares, revolutionaries, and royalists together
the countries that would have been included in the Federation of the Andes Columbia, Ecuador, Venezuela, Bolivia, Peru, and Panama