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History 6

Chapter 16-18

silt small particles of rich soil
alluvial plain an area of fertile soil left by river floods
sedimentary rock rock created when layers of material are hardened by the weight of more material piled above
phosphate mineral salts used to make fertilizer
poaching illegal fishing or huntint
refinery place that turns petroleum into gasoline and other products
wadi dry riverbed that fills with water when rare rains fall in a desert
erg large areas of soft sand and dunes in the Sahara
oasis fertile area that arises in a desert wherever water is regularly available
steppe partly dry grassland often found on the edges of a desert
nomad a person who lives by moving from place to place to follow herds of migrating animals that they hunt or lead herds of grazing animals to fresh pasture and water
dry farming agriculture that conserves water and uses crops and growing methods best suited to semi-arid environments
aquifer underground layer of rock through which water flows
rationing making resources available in limited amounts
desalinization process of treating seawater to remove salts and minerals and make it drinkable
irrigation process of collecting water and distributing it to crops
city-state independent political unit that include a city and the surrounding area
polytheism belief in more than one god
theocracy a form of government in which the leader claims to rule on behalf of a god
cuneiform form of writing from ancient Mesopotamia that consisted of wedge shaped markings pressed into clay tablets
pharoah name for a powerful ruler in ancient egypt
hieroglyphics system of writing that uses small pictures to represent sounds or words
monotheism belief in one god
covenant an agreement (ex. Moses and God; Abraham and God)
prophet a messenger of God
caliph successor to Mohammad
terrorism violence used against the people or government in hopes of winning political goals
hajj pilgrimages to the Muslim holy city of Makkah, the completion of which is one of the pillars of Islam, to be done at least once in a lifetime
saint Christian holy person
dietary law rules in certain religions that detail which foods people can and cannot eat and how food should be prepared and handled
epic tales or poems about heroes or heroines
mosque Islamic house of worship
calligraphy art of beautiful writing
bazaar local marketplace in North Africa and Southwest Asia
fellahin peasant farmers of Egypt who rent small plots of land
dictatorship form of government in which a leader rules by force and typically limits the freedom of its citizens
trade sanction step taken to cutoff trade with a country to show opposition to its governments actions
casbah older section of Algerian cities
civil war fight between opposing groups for control of a country's government
constitutional monarchy form of government in which a monarch is the head of the state but where elected officials run the government
secular nonreligious
Bedouin nomadic desert people in Southwest Asia who follow a traditional way of life
kibbutz settlement in Israel where settlers share all of their property and make goods as well as carry out farming
moshav settlement in Israel in which people share in farming, production and settling, but each person is allowed to own some private property as well
clan large group of people who have a common ancestor in the far past
embargo a partial or complete prohibition of trade with a particular country
cash crop a crop that is grown in order to be sold instead of used by the farmer
fault a crack in the earth's crust where two tectonic plates meet that is prone to earthquakes
genocide the deliberate and systematic destruction of a racial, political or social group
enclave an enclosed area of land within a country where the people are different in some way from the rest of the country (like Palestine)
Created by: LouCat