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A&P Chapter 1

Vocabulary from A&P Chapter 1

TermDefinition
Anatomy the study of the internal and external structures of the body
Physiology the study of how living organisms perform their vital functions
Gross anatomy the study of structures usually visible to the unaided eye
Microscopic anatomy the study of structures that cannot be seen without magnification
Cytology the study of the internal structure of individual cells
Histology the examination of tissues
Tissue a group of cells working together to perform one or more specific functions
Organ a structure composed of two or more types of tissue
Organ system a group of organs interacting to perform a particular function
12 organ systems of the body integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, reproductive, special sensory
Integumentary system composed of the skin, hair, sweat glands, and nails; protects against environmental hazards, helps regulate body temperature, and provides sensory information
Skeletal system composed of bones, cartilage, associated ligaments, and bone marrow; provides support and protection for other tissues, stores calcium and other minerals, and forms blood cells
Muscular system composed of skeletal muscles and associated tendons; provides movement, provides protection and support for other tissues, and generates heat that maintains body temperature
Nervous system composed of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves; directs immediate stimuli, coordinates or moderates activity of other organ systems, and provides and interprets sensory information about external conditions
Endocrine system composition composed of pituitary gland, thyroid gland, pancreas, adrenal glands, gonads, endocrine tissue in other systems
Endocrine system function directs long-term changes in the activities of other organ systems, adjusts metabolic activity and energy use by the body, controls many structural and functional changes during development
Cardiovascular system composed of the heart, blood, and blood vessels; distributes blood cells, water, and dissolved materials, and distributes heat and assists in control of body temperature
Lymphatic system composed of the spleen, thymus, lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, and tonsils; defends against infection and disease, and returns tissue fluids to the bloodstream
Respiratory system composed of the nasal cavities, sinuses, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, and alveoli; delivers air to alveoli, provides oxygen and removes carbon dioxide to/from bloodstream, and produces sounds for communication
Digestive system composed of the teeth, tongue, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas; processes and digests food, absorbs and conserves water, absorbs nutrients, and stores energy reserves
Urinary system composed of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra; excretes waste products from the blood, controls water balance, stores urine, and regulates blood ion concentrations and pH
Male reproductive system composed of the testes, epididymides, ductus deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, penis, and scrotum; produces male sex cells, suspending fluids, and hormones, and permits sexual intercourse
Female reproductive system composed of the ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, labia, clitoris, and mammary glands; produces female sex cells and hormones, supports embryo from conception to delivery, provides milk to nourish the infant, and permits sexual intercourse
Special sensory system composed of the eyes, ears, and nose; provides hearing, sight, and sense of smell
Cell physiology processes within and between cells
Special physiology physiology of specific organs
Systemic physiology functions of an organ system
Pathological physiology effects of disease
Homeostasis all body systems working together to maintain a stable internal environment
Autoregulation automatic response in a cell, tissue, or organ to some environmental change
Extrinsic regulation responses controlled by the nervous and endocrine systems
Receptor tissue that receives the stimulus
Control center tissue that processes the signal and responds to it
Effector tissue that carries out instructions
Negative feedback a feedback loop in which the response of the effector negates the stimulus, returning the body to a state of homeostasis
Positive feedback a feedback loop in which the response of the effector increases the change of the stimulus; the body is moved away from homeostasis, and normal range is lost; used to speed up processes
Systems integration The interaction of several organ systems to perform specific functions of homeostatic regulation
Homeostatic regulation of body temperature carried out by integumentary system (heat loss), muscular system (heat production), cardiovascular system (heat distribution), and nervous system (coordination of blood flow, heat production, and heat loss)
Homeostatic regulation of nutrient concentration carried out by digestive system (nutrient absorption, storage, and release), cardiovascular system (nutrient distribution), and urinary system (control of nutrient loss in the urine)
Homeostatic regulation of oxygen and carbon dioxide levels carried out by the respiratory system (absorption of oxygen and elimination of carbon dioxide) and the cardiovascular system (internal transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide)
Homeostatic regulation of body fluid volume carried out by urinary system (elimination or conservation of water from blood), digestive system (absorption of water, and loss of water via feces), integumentary system (loss of water via perspiration), and cardiovascular system (distribution of water)
Homeostatic regulation of waste product concentration carried out by the urinary system (elimination of waste products from blood), digestive system (elimination of waste products by the liver in feces), and cardiovascular system (transport of waste products to excretion sites)
Homeostatic regulation of blood pressure carried out by the cardiovascular system (pressure generated by the heart moves blood) and nervous/endocrine systems (adjustments in heart rate and blood vessel diameter)
Anatomical position body upright, hands at sides, palms forward
Supine lying down face up
Prone lying down face down
Anatomical landmarks references to palpable structures
Anatomical regions consist of body regions, abdominopelvic quadrants, and abdominopelvic regions
Cephalon/cephalic head
Cranium/cranial skull
Facies/facial face
Frons/frontal forehead
Oculus/ocular eye
Auris/otic ear
Nasus/nasal nose
Bucca/buccal cheek
Oris/oral mouth
Mentis/mental chin
Cervicis/cervical neck
Trunk thorax, mamma, abdomen, and umbilicus
Thorax/thoracic chest
Axilla/axillary armpit
Mamma/mammary breast
Abdomen/abdominal stomach
Umbilicus/umbilical navel
Brachium/brachial upper arm
Antecubitis/antecubital front of elbow
Antebrachium/antebrachial forearm
Carpus/carpal wrist
Palma/palmar palm
Pollex thumb
Digit/digital finger or toe
Phalanx/phalangeal finger or toe
Manus/manual hand
Inguen/inguinal groin
Pubis/pubic anterior pelvis
Femur/femoral thigh
Patella/patellar kneecap
Crus/crural shin
Tarsus/tarsal ankle
Pes/pedal foot
Hallux big toe
Acromion/acromial point of the shoulder
Dorsum/dorsal back
Olecranon/olecranial back of elbow
Lumbus/lumbar loin
Gluteus/gluteal buttock
Popliteus/popliteal back of the knee
Sura/sural calf
Calcaneus/calcaneal heel
Planta/plantar foot
Body regions cephalon, cervicis, thoracis, brachium, antebrachium, carpus, manus, abdomen, lumbus, gluteus, pelvis, pubis, inguen, femur, crus, sura, tarsus, pes, planta
Abdominopelvic quadrants right upper quadrant, right lower quadrant, left upper quadrant, left lower quadrant
Right hypochondriac region Upper right abdominopelvic region
Epigastric region Upper medial abdominopelvic region
Left hypochondriac region Upper left abdominopelvic region
Right lumbar region Central right abdominopelvic region
Umbilical region Central medial abdominopelvic region
Left lumbar region Central left abdominopelvic region
Right inguinal region Lower right abdominopelvic region
Hypogastric region Lower medial abdominopelvic region
Left inguinal region Lower left abdominopelvic region
Anterior front/before
Ventral belly
Posterior back/behind
Dorsal back
Cranial/cephalic head
Superior at a higher level
Caudal toward the tail or coccyx
Inferior at a lower level
Medial toward the midsagittal plane
Lateral away from the midsagittal plane
Proximal toward an attached base
Distal away from an attached base
Superficial closer to the surface
Deep further from the surface
Frontal/coronal a section that separates the anterior and posterior of the body; coronal refers to sections passing through the skull
Sagittal a section that separates the left and right portions
Midsagittal a section that evenly divides the left and right portions of the body
Parasagittal a section that unevenly divides the left and right portions of the body
Transverse a section that separates the superior and inferior portions of the body
Cross section a transverse section
Functions of body cavities protect organs from accidental shocks and permit changes in size or shape of internal organs
Coelom ventral body cavity
Ventral body cavity the anterior cavity of the human body
Diaphragm separates the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
Thoracic cavity superior cavity contained within the coelom
Abdominopelvic cavity inferior cavity contained within the coelom
Pleural cavity left or right thoracic cavity containing the lung
Mediastinum medial thoracic cavity containing the trachea, esophagus, major vessels, and pericardium
Pericardial cavity medial thoracic cavity containing the heart
Peritoneal cavity cavity contained in the abdominopelvic cavity
Abdominal cavity contains most of the digestive glands and organs
Pelvic cavity contains urinary bladder, reproductive organs, and the last portion of the digestive tract
Serous membrane a membrane that lines the body cavity or covers organs
Parietal layer serous membrane that lines a body cavity
Visceral layer serous membrane that covers an organ
Retroperitoneal space area posterior to the peritoneum and anterior to the muscular body wall; contains pancreas, kidneys, ureters, and part of the digestive tract
Created by: ekolmus