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Chapter 16 Vocab


Conquistador conquerors.
Immunity Resistance
Alliance Formal agreements between two or more nations or powers to cooperate and come to one another's defense.
Civil war A war fought between groups of people in the same nation.
Viceroy Representatives who ruled in his name.
Plantation Large estates run by an owner or the owner's overseer.
Encomiendas the right to demand labor or tribute from Native Americans in a particular area.
Peons Workers forced to labor for a landlord in order to pay off a debt.
Peninsulares People born in Spain
Creoles American-born descendants of Spanish settlers.
Mezitos People of Native American and European descent
Mulattoes People of African and European descent.
Privateers Even operated with the approval of European governments.
Missionaries Someone sent on a religious mission.
Revenues Income from taxes
Compact An agreement among people.
Triangular trade A part of a three-legged trade network formed by the Atlantic slave trade.
Repeal Cancel
Monopolies The exclusive control of a business or industry.
Inflation The economic cycle that involves a rise inb prices linked to a sharp increase in the amount of money available.
Capitalism The investment of money to make a profit
Entrepreneurs Enterprising merchants
Joint stock company Allowed people to pool large amounts of capital needed for overseas ventures. Developed in late medieval times.
Mercantilism A new economic policy aimed at strengthening their national economies.
Tariffs Taxes on imported goods.
Tainos Encountered by Christopher Columbus in 1492; Lived in villages and grew corn, yams, and cotton, which they wove into cloth; Friendly and generous toward the Spanish; the gold ornaments worn by them were siezed by conquistadors that followed Columbus; Were
Hernan Cortes Among the earliest conquistadors; Landed on the coast of Mexico in 1519 with about 600 men, 16 horses, and a few cannons; Helped by Malinche as he headed toward Tenochtitlan; Learned that many conquered peoples hated their Aztec overlords from Malinche; a
Malinche Helped Cortes head toward Tenochtitlan and served as his translator and adviser; Knew both the Mayan and Aztec languages and learned Spanish quickly; Helped Cortes arrange alliances with the discontented groups that would help one another fight the Aztecs
Moctezuma Aztec emperor; Wondered if the leader of the pale-skinned, bearded strangers might be Quetzalcoatl; Sent gifts of gold and silver but urged the strangers not to continue to Tenochtitlan; Welcomed Cortes to his capital; Killed in the fighting when driving
Francisco Pizarro Inspired by Cortes success; Arrived in Peru in 1532; Captured Atahualpa after slaughtering thousands of his followers with the help of Indian allies;
Atahualpa Incan ruler that won the throne from his brother in a bloody civil war; Captured by Pizarro; killed by the Spanish;
Council of the Indies Set up by the king of Spain to pass laws for the colonies in the 1500's; Closesly monitored the colonial officials to make sure they did not assume to much authority.
Barolome de las Casas Bold priest; Detailed the horrors that Spanish rule had brought to Native Americans and pleaded with the king to end the abuse; Spain passed the New Laws of the Indies in 1542 forbidding enslavement of Native Americans, that was prodded by Las Casas. Urge
New Laws of the Indies Passed by Spain and prodded by Las Casas; Meant to end eabuses against Native Americans, but Spain was too far away to enforce them;;
Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz A women who was wishing an education might enter a convent; Refused admission to the University of Mexico because she was a girl, she entered a convent at the age of 16; Devoted herselt to study and the writing of poetry; Earned a reputation as one of the
Samuel de Champlain Built the first permanent French settlement in Quebec in 1608.
Louis XIV French King that set out to strengthen royal power and boost revenues from his overseas empire in the late 1600's. Appointed officials to oversee justice and economic activities in New France. Also sent more settlers and soldiers to North America.
Jamestown First permanent colony built by the English in 1607. Many settlers died of starvation and disease, the rest survived with the help of friendly Native Americans; Finally made headway when the settlers started to grow and export tobacco;
Pilgrims English settlers that landed at Plymouth Massachusetts in 1620; They were seeking religious freedom, rather than commercial profit; Signed the Mayflower Compact before they came ashore; Many pilgrims died in the early years of the Plymouth colony; Indians
Mayflower Compact Signed by the Pilgrims; Set guidelines for governing their North American colony; An agreement amoung people; Today we see this document as an important early step toward self-government.
French and Indian War Raged from 1754-1763;
Treaty of Paris 1763; Ended the worldwide war; Ensured British dominance in North America;
Middle Passage Part of three-legged trade network fromed by the Atlantic slave trade; The second leg; Slaves were transported to the West Indies; There the enslaved Africans were exchanged for sugar, molasses, and other products; Was a horror for enslaved Africans;
Asante Emerged in the area occupied by modern Ghana; Traded with Europeans on the coast, exchanging gold and slaves for firearms; Shrewdly played off rival Europeans against one another to protect their own interests; Osei Tutu conquered neighboring peoples and
Usman dan Fodio Scholar and preacher; Denounced the corruption of the local Hausa rulers; Called for social and religous reforms based on the Sharia; Inspired Fulani herders and Hausa towspeople to rise up against their rulers in the early 1800's; Set up an Islamic State
Boer Dutch farmers that settled around Cape Town; Enslaved the Khoisan herders who lived there; Held to a Calvinist belief that they were the elect of God; Looked on Africans as inferiors; Began to push north from the Cape Colony; Had to battle several powerfu
Shaka Ruthless and brilliant leader; Built on the successes of earlier leaders who had begun to organize young fighters into permanent regiments; Waged relentless war and conquered many nearby peoples between 1818 and 1828; Absorbed their young men and women in
Great Trek Boer families loaded their goods into covered wagons and started north to escape british rule.
Columbian Exchange A global exchange that began with Columbus; Columbus brought new plants and animals that he had found in the Americas; Had a profound effect on the world; In addition to people, plants, and animals, it included technology and even disease
Commercial revolution Spurred trade, promoted new business methods, and increased competition for profits among European nations; The opening of direct links with Asia, Africa, and the Americas had far reaching economic consequences for Europeans known as the price revolution
Putting-out system Separated capital and labor for the first time; Controlled by merchants; First used to produce textiles but later spread to other industries
Created by: Ashley Luallen