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chapter 2 - the chemical level of organization

matter exists in how many states? and what are they? solids, liquids, gas
all forms of matter - living and non-living - are made up a limited number building blocks called? chemical elements
what chemical elements make up about 96% of the body's mass? carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen
what is each element made up of? atoms
what does the nucleus consisted of? protons, neutrons, and electrons
what is the region called that electrons move around in? electron shells
what subatomic particle is also equal to the number of an element's atomic number? protons
what subatomic particles is the mass number consisted of? protons and neutrons
radioactive isotopes are unstable and decay. T or F true
what are different atoms of an element have the same number of protons but different number of neutrons called? isotopes
the time required for hald of the radioactive atoms in a sample of that isotope to decay into a more stable form half-life
what is the maximum amount of electrons the first electron shell can hold? 2
what is the maximum amount of electroms the second electron shell can hold? 8
what is the maximum amount of electrons the third electron shell can hold? 18
what is that standard unit of measurment for the mass of atoms and thier subatomic particles? dalton
the average mass of an element's naturally occuring isotopes atomic mass
an atom that has either a positive or negative charge because it has an unequal numbers of protons and neutrons ion
the process of giving up or gaining electrons ionization
when two or more atoms share electrons, what is formed? molecule
a substance that contains atoms of two or more different elements compound
an electrically charged atom or group of atoms with an unpaired electron in the outermost shell free radical
consumption of what substance are thought to inactivate the oxygen-derived free radicals? antioxidants: selenium, zinc, beta-carotene, vitamins C and E
the forces that hold together the atoms of molecules or a compound chemical bond
another name for the outermost shell valence shell
when is an atom chemically stable? when the valence shell is holding 8 electrons
the force of attraction that hold together ions with opposite charges ionic bond
what is a positively charged ion called? cation
what is a negatively charged ion called? anion
an ionic compound that breaks apart into positive an negative ions in a solution is called an? electrolyte
where are ionic bonds mainly found? in teeth and bones
what type of bond is formed when two or more atoms share electrons rather than gaining or losing them? covalent
when one atoms doesn't attract the shared electrons more strongly than the other atom nonpolar covalent bond
what type of bond is formed when the sharing of two atoms is unequal polar covalent bond
the power to attract electrons to itself electronegativity
what type of bond is formed when a hydrogen atom with a patial positive charge attracts the partial negative charge of neighboring electronegative atoms hydrogen
the tendency of like particles to stay together cohesion
what is the form of energy that is stored by matter due to its position? potential energy
what is the form of energy that is associated with matter in motion? kinetic energy
what is the capacity to do work called? energy
what is a form of potential energy that is stored in the bonds of compounds and molecules? chemical energy
when energy can niether be destroyed or created, but it can be converted from one form to another. law of conservation of energy
what type of bond is found most in the body? covalent bond
the collison energy needed to break the chemical bond of the reactants activation energy
what two components influence the chance that a collision will occur and cause a chemical reaction? concentration & temperature
what type of bond is found most in the body? covalent bond
the collison energy needed to break the chemical bond of the reactants activation energy
what two components influence the chance that a collision will occur and cause a chemical reaction? concentration & temperature
what are chemical compounds that speed up chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy needed for a reaction to occur catalyst
what type of chemical reactions occurs when two or more atoms, ions, or molecules combine to form new and larger molecules? synthesis - anabolism
A + B --combines to form--> AB synthesis reaction
what type of chemical reaction occurs when large molecules split up into smaller ions, atoms, and molecules? decomposition
AB --breaks down into--> A + B decomposition - catabolism
what type of chemical reaction consists of both synthesis and decomposition? exchange
AB + CD ----> AD + BC exchange reaction
what type of chemical reaction occurs when the products can revert to the original reactants? reversible
AB -breaks down into & combines to form- A+B reversible reaction
what is the relationship between reactants and products in a chemical reaction? depending on what type of reaction; reactants determine product
what kind of compounds usually lack carbon and are structurally simple? inorganic compounds
what type of bonds do inorganic compounds contain? ionic and covalent
what is the most important and abundant inorganic compound in all living systems? water
what is the most versatile solvent? water
solutes that are charged or contain polar covalent bonds hydrophilic
molecules that contain mainly nonpolar covalent bonds hydrophobic
decomposition reaction that break down large nutrient molecules into smaller molecules by the addition of water molecules hydrolisis
what is a combination of elements or compounds that are physically blended together but not bound by chemical bonds? mixture
what are the three common liquid mixtures? solutions, colloids, and suspensions
what is the difference between a colliod and a solution? the size of its particles
when the suspended material may mix with the liquid or suspending medium for some time, but eventually settles out supsension
what is a substance that dissociates into one or more hydrogen ions and one or more anions? acid
what is a substance that removes hydrogen ions from a solution? a base which is therefore a proton acceptor
where is a solution's acidity or alkalinity expressed on? pH scale
what is the function of buffer systems? converts strong acids or bases into weak acids or bases
a solution that has more H+ than OH- acidic solution
a solution that has more OH- than H+ basic (alkaline) solution
the chemical compounds that can convert strong acids or bases into weak ones buffers
a buffer system that compensates for either an excess or a shortage of H+ carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system
what functions does water perform in the body? solvent, lubricant, and helps in chemical reactions
the chain of carbon atoms in an organic molecule carbon skeleton
other atoms or molecules that are bound to the hydrocarbon skeleton functional groups
small organic molecules that combine into very large molecules macromolecules
a large molecule formed by the covalent bonding of many identical or similar small building block molecules called monomers polymers
molecules that have the same molecular formula but different structures isomers
sugars, glycogen, starches, cellulose carbohydrates
how much percent of your body is composed of carbohydrates? 2-3% of total body mass
what is the main function of carbohydrates in the body? main source of chemical energy for generating ATP needed to drive metabolic reactions
type of sugar that is a building block of DNA and carries inherited genetic information deoxyribose
what elements are found in carbohydrates? carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
what are the 3 major groups of carbohydrates? monosaccharides, disacharides, polysaccharides
what 2 groups of carbohyrdates are known as the simple sugars? monosaccharides and disacharides
what are examples of monosaccharides? glucose (main blood sugar), fructose (fruit sugar), galactose (milk sugar), deoxyribose(in DNA), ribose(in RNA)
what are examples of disaccharides? sucrose (table sugar), lactose (milk sugar), maltose
what are some examples of polysaccharides? glycogen, starch, cellulose
polysaccharides fromed from glucose by plants starches
polysaccharide found in plants that cannot be digested by humans but does provide bulk to help eliminate feces cellulose
what percentage of the body's mass is made up of lipids? 18-25%
lipid/protein complexes; are soluble because the proteins are on the outside and the proteins are on the inside lipoprotien
what are the most plentiful lipids in your body and diet? triglycerides/triglycerols
what is the function of triglycerides? protection, insulation, and energy storage
what is the functio of phospholipids? major lipid component of cell membranes
what 2 types of building blocks does triglyceride consist of? one glycerol molecule and three fatty acid molecules
triglycerides that contain only one single covalent bonds between fatty acid carbon atoms saturated fats
contain fatty acids with one double covalent bond between two fatty acid carbon atoms monosaturated fats
contain more than one double covalent bond between fatty acid carbon atoms polyunsaturated fats
Created by: hdungo23



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