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Ch 10 Vocab. Ap Geo.

Vocabulary for chapter 10 of The cultural landscape an intro. to human geography

Agribusiness comercial agriculture by the integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations
Agricultural revolution the time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering
Aquaculture (or aquafarming) the cultivation of seafood under controlled conditions
Cereal grain (or cereal) grass that yields grain for food
Chaff husks of grain separated from the seed by threshing
Combine machine that reaps, threshes, and cleans grain while moving over a field
Commercial agriculture agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm
Crop any plant gathered from a field as a harvest during a particular season
Crop rotation practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year to avoid exhausting the soil
Desertification degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions such as excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting. also known as semiarid land degradation
Dietary energy consumption amount of food that an individual consumes, measured in kilocalories (calories in the US)
Double cropping harvesting twice a year from the same field
Food security physical, social, and economic access at all times to safe and nutritious food sufficient to meet dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life
Grain seed of a cereal grass
Green revolution rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers
Horticulture growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers
Hull outer covering of a seed
Intensive subsistence agriculture form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land
Milkshed area surrounding a city from which milk is supplied
Paddy Malay word for wet rice, commonly but incorrectly used to describe a sawah
Pastoral nomadism form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals
Pasture grass or other plants grown for feeding grazing animals, as well as land used for grazing
Plantation large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usually to a more developed country
Prime agricultural land most productive farmland
Ranching form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area
Reaper machine that cuts cereal grain standing in a field
Ridge tillage system of planting crops on ridge tops in order to reduce farm production costs and promote greater soil conservation
Sawah flooded field for growing rice
Shifting cultivation form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for a relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period
Slash-and-burn agriculture another name for shifting cultivation, so named because fields are cleared by slashing the vegetation and burning the debris
Spring wheat wheat planted in the spring and harvested in the late summer
Subsistence agriculture agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family
Sustainable agriculture farming methods that preserve longterm productivity of land and minimize pollution, typically by rotating soil-resisting crops with cash crops and reducing inputs of fertilizer and pesticides
Swidden patch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning
Thresh beat out grain from stalks
Transhumance seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pasture
Truck farming commercial gardening and fruit farming, so named because truck was a Middle English word meaning "bartering" or exchange of commodities"
Undernourishment dietary energy consumption that is continuously below the minimum requirement for maintaing a healthy life and carrying out light physical activity
Wet rice rice planted on dry land in a nursery and then moved to a deliberately flooded field to promote growth
Winnow remove chaff by allowing it to be blown away by the wind
Winter wheat wheat planted in the autumn and harvested in the early summer
Created by: ivanderzon17
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