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# ADV.D07 Preanalyt

# ADV.D07 - Ch.09 - Preanalystical Errors

lipemia milky appearing serum. Due to eating fatty meal before blood is drawn.
Fasting should include abstinance from taking water. False. The patient can have water.
Probing for a vein can cause hemolysis and release of tissue factor
Hemolysis the breaking of RBC
Shaking a vacuum tube instead of gently mixing it can cause hemolysis
When a patient's veins are hard and occluded you should obtain a capillary puncture
Thrombosis A condition in which a blood clot is in a blood vessel.
Chlorhexidine gluconate A skin antiseptic that can be used when the patient is allergic to iodine or alcohol.
Stress will elevate some blood levels. These are: WBC, glucose, hormones, fibrinogen
diurnal rhythms fluctuations in body fluid levels and analyte values during the day.
Syncope Dizzy feeling. Patients who have syncope should be in the
supine lying on the back with legs straight
lymphedema A condition of increased tissue fluid due to lymph fluid release. Occurs after a mastectomy.
pharmacokinetics The absorption, distribution, and action of drugs.
TDM Therapeutic drug monitoring
fasting Restriction from foods and beverages for 8 to 12 hours. Water is acceptable.
2hr. post prandial (2hr.PP) Blood test to be done 2 hours after a prescribed meal.
Timed Test One that is drawn at a specific time. May be drawn 10 minutes before or 10 minutes after the designated time (example, 3pm can be drawn at 2:50pm to 3:10pm
tourniquet pressure elevates Potassium (K), Cholesterol & lipids, Iron
If the patient pumps their fist they can increase potassium, lactate, phosphate
Acceptable corrective actions if you do not get blood when you stick 1. move needle slightly inward or 2. move needle slightly outward.
petechiae small bruising of the skin due to thrombocytopenia
hematoma a collection of blood under the skin due to bleeding. Can occur if you do not hold down on the puncture site.
Hemoconcentration build up of analytes due to reduced blood flow
preanalytical error Any event that alters the blood sample before the sample is tested.
analytical error any event that alters the blood sample during testing
postanalytical error any event that affects the patient results after testing is done.
Thermolabile temperature sensitive
Photosensitive sensitive to light
Specimens that are photosensitive bilirubin, beta-carotene, folate, porphyrins, Vitamin A, B6 and B12
Thermolabile specimens that require cold ammonia, ABGs, catecholamines, gastrin, lactic acid, parathyroid hormone, pyruvate
Thermolabile specimens that require 37C or body temperature Cold agglutinins, cryofibrinogen, cryoglobulins
preanalytical error Error before testing
analytical error Error that occurs before testing
lymphostasis excess lymph fluid that forms on the side of a mastectomy
variable something that can change
patient variables - Most are controllable diet, lifestyle, exercise, posture, circadian rhythm, travel, prolonged bed rest, basal state
environmental variables - not controllable geographical location. For example altitude plays a role in increasing the number of RBC!
specimen collection variables - controllable transport method, mixing additive tubes, technique and use of proper equipment and correct tubes.
Diet fasting ensures a basal state for blood testing. Certain foods may also be restricted depending upon the type of test.
turbid Cloudiness or haziness of a fluid. lipemia creates a cloudy to milky appearance in blood. This cloudy appearance is referred to as being turbid.
Basal State Minimal metabolic state achieved when fasting for 8 to 12 hours.
Fasting for 13 hours is better than 12. False. 13 hours may dehydrate the patient.
It is acceptable to collect a capillary sample if veins are occluded or sclerotic TRUE. Just document the type of specimen on the requisition.
What are acceptable patient identifiers: name, ID#, DOB, scanned QR code on an armband
A patient with and IV should have blood drawn. On the other arm. If the IV side must be done, draw below the IV after turning the IV off for 2 min.
Created by: rjmtoss



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