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Chapter 15


Henry the Navigator Embodied the crusading drive and the new spirit of exploration; Hoped to expand Christianity & find the source of African gold; Gathered scientists, cartographers, and other experts; Sent ships to explore the western coast of Africa; Died in 1460.
Vasco da Gama Led four ships around the Cape of Good Hope in 1497; Reached the great spice port of Calicut on the west coast of India; Acquired a cargo of spices that he sold at a profcit of 3000 percent; Forced a treaty of friendship on the ruler of Calicut in 1502; L
Christopher Columbus Italian navigator from the port of Genoa; Sought Portuguese backing for his own plan; Wanted to reach the Indies by sailing west across Atlantic; Knew Earth was sphere shaped; Underestimated size of Earth; Had no idea two continents lay in his path.
Vasco Núñez de Balboa Spanish adventurer; Hacked a passage through the tropical forests of Panama with help of Native Americans; Called a huge body of water the South sea;
Ferdinand Magellan Minor Portuguese noble that set out from Spain with five ships in 1519 on Sep 20; Crew included men from Europe, Africa & Southeast Asia; Explored each bay hoping for one that would lead to the Pacific when they reached coast of South America; Entered bay
Cartographer Map makers.
Astrolabe An instrument developed by the ancient Greeks and perfected by the Arabs.
Caravel Combined the square sails of European ships with Arab lateen.
Scurvy Disease caused by a lack of vitamin C.
Circumnavigate Sail around.
Pagan Kingdom; Arose in the fertile rice-growing Irrawaddy Valley in present-day Myanmar; United in 1044 by King Anawrata; Major Buddhist center ; Flourished for some 200 years after Anawrata's death, but fell in 1287 to conquering Mongols;
Anawrata United Pagan in 1044; Credited with bringing Buddhism to the Burman perople; Made Pagan a major Buddhist center; Filled his capital city with magnificent stupas; Died but pagan flourished for some 200 years after death.
Khmer Reached its peak between 800 and 1350; Indian influences helped shape it; Kmer people adampted Indian writing, mathematics, architecture, and art; Khmer rulers became pious Hindus; Style of Vishnu, Shiva, and the Buddha are uniquely Khmer.
Suryavarman II Built the great temple complex at Angkor Wat; Hundreds of carved figures tell Hindu myths and glorify King Suryavarman II;
Trung Sisters Two noble sisters. Trung Trac and Trung Nhi; Led an uprising that briefly drove the Chinese occupiers from the land in A.D 39; Tried to restore a simpler form of government based on ancient Vietnamese traditions; Remembered as great martyrs and heroes;
Matrilineal Inheritance through the mother
Stupa Dome-shaped shrines
Padi Fields
Afonso de Albuquerque Portuguese burst into Indian Ocean under his command; Moved to end Muslim power and turn the Indian Ocean into a Portuguese lake after; Burned coastal towns and crushed Arab fleets at sea; Took Malacca in 1511 massacring the city's Muslims and making the
Robert Clive An agent of the British East India Company; Used an army of British troops and sepoys to drive the French from their trading posts;
Outpost Distant Areas under their control
Sepoy Indian troops
Matteo Ricci Brilliant Jesuit priest; made a positive impression on Ming China; Learned to speak Chinese and adopted Chinese dress; had little success spreading their religious beliefs
Manchus Ruled a region in the northeast that had long been influenced by Chinese civilization; Seized Beijing and made it their capital in 1644; Set up a new dynasty called the Qing; Varred intermarriage between Manchus and Chinese to preserve their distinct iden
Kangxi Ruled from 1661 to 1722; An able administrator and military leader; Extended Chinese power into Central Asia and promoted culture;
Qianlong Kangxi's grandson; Had an equally successful reign from 1736 to 1796; Expanded China's borders to rule the largest area in the nation's history; Retired after 60 years because e did not want to rule longer that his grandfather had
Hermit Kingdom Korea became known in the west as the Hermit Kingdom because when European sailors were shipwrecked on Korean shores, they were imprisoned or killed
Francis Xavier Spanish priest; Like the Jesuits he found the Japanese curious and eager to learn about Christianity.
Created by: Ashley Luallen