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Ch 9 Vocab AP Geo

Vocabulary for Ch 9

TermDefinition
Active solar energy Solar energy systems that collects energy through the use of mechanical devices such as photovoltaic cells or flat-plate collectors
Adolescent fertility rate Number of births per 1,000 womb ages 15-19
Biomass fuel Fuel that derives from plant material and animal waste
Breeder reactor Nuclear power plant that creates its own fuel from plutonium
Demand Quantity of something that consumers are willing and able to buy
Developed country(MDC or relatively developed country) Country that has progressed relatively far along a continuum of development.
Developing country Country that is at a relatively early stage in the process of economic development.
Fair trade Alternative to international trade that emphasizes small businesses and worker-owned and democratically run cooperatives & requires employers to pay workers wages, permit
Female labor force participation rate Percentage of women holding full-time jobs outside home
Fission Splitting of an atomic nucleus to release energy
Foreign direct investment Investment made by foreign company in the economy of another country
Fossil fuel Energy source found formed from the residue of plants and animals buried millions of years ago
Fracking (hydraulic fracturing) Pumping of water at high pressure to break apart rocks in order to release natural gas
Fusion Creation of energy by joining the nuclei of two hydrogen atoms to form helium
Gender inequality index Measure of the extent of each country's gender inequality
Geothermal energy Energy from steam or hot water produced from hot or molten underground rocks
Gross domestic product Value of the total output of goods and services produced in a country in a given time period
Gross national income Value of the output of goods & services produced in a country in a year, including money that leaves and enters the country
Housing bubble Rapid increase in the value of houses followed by a sharp decline in their value
Human development index indicator of the level of development for each country, constructed by the UN, that's based on income, literacy, education, & life expectancy
Hydroelectric power Power generated by moving water
Inequality-adjusted HDI Modification of the HDI to account for inequality within a country
Literacy rate Percentage of a country's people who can read & write
Maternal mortality ratio Number of women who die giving birth per 100,000 births
Microfinance Provision of small loans & other financial services to individuals & small businesses in developing countries
Millennium Development Goals Eight international development goals that all members of the UN have agreed to achieve by 2015
Nonrenewable energy Source of energy that has a finite supply capable of being exhausted
Passive solar energy systems Solar energy systems that collect energy without the use of mechanical devices
Photovoltaic cell Solar energy cell, usually made from silicon, that collects solar rays to generate electricity
Potential reserve Amount of a resource in deposits not yet identified but thought to exist
Primary sector Portion of the economy concerned with direct extraction of materials from Earth's surface, generally through agriculture, although sometimes by mining, fishing, & forestry
Productivity Value of a particular product compared to the amount of labor needed to make it
Proven reserve Amount of a resource remaining in discovered deposits
Purchasing power parity Amount of money needed in one country to purchase same goods & services in another country; PPP adjusts income figures to account for differences among countries in the cost of goods
Radioactive waste Materials from a nuclear redaction that emit radiation; contact with such particles may be harmful or lethal to people; therefore, the materials must be safely stored for thousands of years
Renewable energy Resource that has a theoretically unlimited supply & is not depleted when used
Secondary sector Portion of the economy concerned with manufacturing useful products through processing, transforming, & assembling raw materials
Structural adjustment program Economic policies imposed on LDCs by international agencies to create conditions encouraging international trade, such as raising taxes, reducing govern.spending, controlling inflation, selling publicly owned utilities 2 private, & charging more 4 service
supply Quantity of something that producers have available for sale
Tertiary Sector Portion of the economy concerned with transportation, communications, & utilities, sometimes extended to the provision of all goods & services to people in exchange for payment
Uneven development Development of core regions at the expense of those on the periphery
Value added Gross value of a product minus the costs of raw materials & energy
Created by: ivanderzon17