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Midterm History

Who were the three groups that inhabited the Italian Peninsula? Latins, Greeks and the Etruscans
What is a civil war? a conflict between two political groups within the same country
What was a triumvirate? in ancient Rome, a group of three leaders sharing control of the government
Who was Julius Caesar? a strong leader who was a genius at military strategy who also governed Rome as an absolute ruler
What is a bishop? a high-ranking Christian official who supervises a number of local churches
What is a pope? the bishop of Rome, head of the Roman Catholic Church
What did Rome's economy suffer? inflation, which is a decline in the value of money, accompanied by a rise in the prices of goods and services
What did the Roman government do to defend against the threats of the empire? The government began to recruit mercenaries who were foreign soldiers who fought for money
What is Greco-Roman culture? an ancient culture that developed from a blending of Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman Cultures
Romans borrowed much of their philosophy from who? the Greeks
What is the holy book of Islam? The Qur'an
Who is the leader of religious services for Islam? There is no real leader. An Imam or Muezzin is the person who leads the faithful in prayer.
Who is Muhammad to Muslims? The last and greatest prophet
Who became the first caliph or successor? Abu-Bakr who was a loyal friend of Muhammad
Who's rule was called a caliphate? The four "rightly guided" caliphs
What does the word jhad mean? It means "striving" and can refer to the inner struggle against evil
There is no separation between which two features of civilization in the Islamic religion? Religion and government
What does Islam mean? To submit to God
What did Muslim centers of learning advance in? Medicine, literature, science and mathematics
Muslim artists expanded by adopting what? calligraphy
What was Justinian's code of law? a body of civil law created by Emperor Justinian for the Byzantine Empire
What did Justinian successfully rebuild? The church of Hagia Sophia and the city of Constantinople
What destroyed a huge amount of the Byzantine population? The Plague
When the Church split, what were the two parts it split into? Eastern Orthodox Church and Roman Catholic church
Who were the two groups that had the greatest impact on the development of Russia? The Slavs and the Vikings
Who were the rulers of the Muslim Empire? The Abbasids
What title did Ivan III also have? czar
What reigion did the Seljuks convert to? Islam
The Persian culture most influenced who? the Seljuks
The Byzantines and the Mongols most influenced the development of what civilization? Russia
What invention did the most to end the Middle Ages? the development of the longbow
What was the effect the Second Agricultural Revolution had on medieval society? it increased population due to the growing of more crops
How did the Great Schism come to an end? when all three of the popes were forced to resign and a new pope was elected
What was the main effect of the Commercial Revolution? more money was available for building businesses
What did the decisions of the English royal courts of justice create? English Common Law
What function did the craft guilds not perform? they didn't allow borrowing or loaning of money
What did William the Conqueror lead? the Norman conquest of England
What is an association of people who work at the same occupation or profession? a guild
Who was the pope that issued the First Crusade? Urban II
What did the Magna Carta guarantee? basic legal rights
At what age was a squire raised to the rank of a knight? 21
Who did a knight fight for? his heavenly lord, his feudal lord, and his lady
What were serfs? people who were bound to the land of the lord and could not lawfully leave the place of which they were born
Who were the Franks? Germanic people in power in the Roman province of Gaul
What did the Treaty of Verdun do? it ended the civil war in the empire established by Charlemagne and divided the empire into three kingdoms
What did Clovis do? he was the leader who brought and spread Christianity to the Franks
During the Middle Ages, who were the lowest ranking members of the clergy? priests
What was Henry IV's punishment for defying the pope? excommunication
What was the practice of the appointment of church officials by kings and nobles? lay investiture
What was the concept of feudalism? it was a system of loyalties and protection based on mutual obligations
Created by: cbeutel