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Human Development

Theories of Human Development

Sigmund Freuds 2 divisions ? *Consciousness (conscious, preconscious, unconscious).....*Personality (Superego, Id, Ego)
How we keep our non-normal thoughts or actions in our unconscious ? *Defense Mechanisms
Mature Defense Mechanisms ? Altruism , Humor, Sublimation, Suppression
Immature Defense Mechanisms ? * Acting Out, Denial, Displacement, Dissociation, Identification, Intellectualization, Isolation of affect, Projection, Rationalization, Reaction Formation, Regression , Somatization, Splitting, Undoing
Altruism and humor ? *Altruism- Helping others to avoid negative emotions ........* Humor- Talking or joking about something painful or unpleasant in a way that makes self or others laugh
Sublimation and Suppression ? *Sublimation- Channeling an unacceptable drive or desire into a socially acceptable format. ......* Suppression- Deliberately putting aside (“sweeping under the rug”, “bottling it all up”) unwanted feelings without becoming totally unaware of them.
Immature - Acting Out, Denial, and Displacement ? *Acting Out- Avoid feelings by attention-getting, inappropriate behavior ....* Denial- Not believing personally intolerable facts about reality ....* Displacement- Transfer emotions from an unacceptable to acceptable person or object.
Dissociation, Identification, Intellectualization ? *Dissociation- Separation of function of mental processes ...*Identification- Imitating someone who is more powerful. ....* Intellectualization- Using higher mental functions to avoid emotions
Isolation of Affect, Projection, and Rationalization ? *Isolation of affect- Fail to experience powerful feelings even though understanding the event. ....* Projection- Attributing one’s own unacceptable feelings to others ....* Rationalization- Giving reasonable explanations for unacceptable feelings.
Reaction Formation, Regression ? *Reaction Formation- Denying unacceptable feelings and adopting opposite attitudes....* Regression- Appearance of childlike patterns of behavior during stressful situations.
Splitting and Undoing ? * Splitting- Believing people or events are either all bad or all good because of intolerance of ambiguity. ....* Undoing- Erasing an unacceptable event in the past by adopting acceptable behavior in the present (superstitious behavior).
Somatization ? * Somatization- Turning an unacceptable impulse or feeling into a physical symptom.
Erik Eriksons Theory ? * Stage Theory of Identity
1st year of life ? *Trust vs. Mistrust
2nd year ? *Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
3 - 5 years of life ? *Initiative vs. Guilt
6 yr to puberty ? *Industry vs. Inferiority
Adolescense ? *Identity vs. Role Confusion
Early Adulthood ? *Intimacy vs. Isolation
Middle Age ? *Generativity vs. Stagnation
Aging Years ? *Ego Integrity vs. Despair
Jean Piagets Theory ? *Developmental Stage Theory
Birth to 18 months ? *Sensorimotor Period - coordination of sensory input to motor responses
18 months to 7 years ? * early thought development stage - kid got shot after Dr used an otoscope, so now thinks a shot always follows an otoscope exam
7 years to Adolescence ? *Concrete Operational Period -
Adolescence to Adults ? *Formal Operational Period - ideas and logical thinking
Learning from the environment ? * Nonassociative Learning
Types of Nonassociative Learning ? * Habituation: decline in to the repeated presentation of a stimulus. In vivo desensitization ....* Sensitization: augmentation of a response because of repeated stimuli ....* Imitative Learning (Modeling): Imitative or observational learning
Associative Learning ? *Classical Conditioning .... *Operant Conditioning
Concept of Extinction ? * After awhile, the association will diminish if it is not reinforced....Ex. The dog salivating over the bell bc he associated it with meat. After a while, if no meat is given, the dog will stop salivating after hearing the bell after a while
Resistance to Extinction ? * Some associations are more resistant to extinction than others - like someone not being able to drink a certain drink bc they got too sick off of it once
Operant Conditioning Reinforcement Schedules ? Reinforcement is presented after :....*Fixed ratio: a certain # of behaviors ....*Fixed interval: a certain amount of time ....*Variable ratio: a variable # of behaviors ....* Variable interval: a variable amount of time
Hardest Reinforcement schedules to break/ leads to gambling issues ? * Variable Ratio
Genetics in Behavior: Concordance Rates ? * compare similarity for a trait between a person who has the trait and another person of some determined relationship to the “proband”......monozygotic twins show higher rates of similarity
Temperament: Behavioral Style 9 parts ? * Activity level , Rhythmicity , Tendency to approach vs. Withdrew from new situations , Adaptability , Responsiveness , Intensity , Quality of mood , Distractibility , Attention Span
3 Attachment Styles ? Secure Child , Insecure Avoidant, Insecure Ambivalent
Secure Child ? * references parent and seeks proximity when stranger enters, may be upset upon parental departure, seeks parent upon return
Insecure Avoidant Child ? * does not reference parent or seek proximity when stranger enters, not upset at separation, no response to parental return
Insecure Ambivalent Child ? * references parent and seeks proximity when stranger enters, upset upon parental departure, difficult to console upon return
Created by: thamrick800