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Patristics part 1

Study of early Christian writers - Theo 712 at Christendom NDGS lectures 1-6

How did St. Justin Martyr die? He was beheaded in Rome.
What are the four requirements to be a Father of the Church? -Orthodox -Holy -Approved by the Church -Antiquity - lived in time from apostolic age to mid 8th century.
If the Fathers unanimously teach on a matter of faith or morals, is it considered doctrine? Yes.
Name the three ages of the Fathers of the Church. Age of origins - 1st - 3rd century Golden Age - 300 - 430 Last Centuries - 430 - end of the age, 749
How many Fathers of the Church have also been declared Doctors? Name them. 8 - St. Ambrose, St. Jerome, St. Augustine and Pope St. Gregory the Great from the west and St. Athanasius, St. Basil the Great, St. Gregory Nazianzus and St. John Chrysostom from the east.
Which Church Fathers are known as apologists? St. Irenaeus, Minucius Felix, St. Justin Martyr, Tatian the Assyrian, St. Melito of Sardis, Athenagoras, Hermas and St. Theophilus of Antioch.
When and with whom does the age of the Fathers end in the East? 749 with St. John Damascene
When and with whom does the age of the Fathers end in the West? Three opinions on this: 604 with St. Gregory the Great, 636 with St. Isidore of Seville or 735 with St. Bede the Venerable.
Do any of the Fathers have unorthodox writings? Yes, there are problems in some of the work of Eusebius, Origen and Tertullian, but they are admired for their orthodox work in the early years of the Church.
Can a man be a Father of the Church without being a saint? Yes, there are many.
Do we have direct writings of all the Church Fathers? No, some are known only by reputation through the writings of others, eg: Eusebius cites the teaching of Apollinarius.
When was the Didache written? Between AD 50 and AD 150.
How long is the Didache? 16 chapters.
What four main areas does the Didache cover? Morality, liturgical practice, disciplinary regulations and the last chapter covers Christ's Second Coming.
Are the teachings of the Didache consistent with current Catholic Church teachings? Yes.
What is the full title of the Didache? The Lord's Instruction to the Gentiles Through the Twelve Apostles.
What is the significance of the Didache's full title, The Lord's Instruction to the Gentiles Through the Twelve Apostles? The full title indicates the significance of Tradition, how Jesus' teaching is passed to the Apostles and then on to future generations.
Name some of the moral teachings of the Didache. Love the Lord God first, next love your neighbor as yourself, no murder, no adultery, no magic, no potions, no abortion, no killing of newborns.
Name some liturgical teachings of the Didache. Confession of sins in Church, Mass as a sacrifice in accord with Mal. 1:10-11, matter and form of baptism, restrictions on reception of the Eucharist
When was St. Clement of Rome pope? Generally accepted dates are AD 92-101, but Jurgens argues that he wrote the Letter to the Corinthians in AD 80, as pope.
For what work is Pope St. Clement of Rome known? First Letter of Clement aka Letter to the Corinthians
Name some important aspects of Pope St. Clement's Letter to the Corinthians. It has a developed doctrine of the Church: hierarchy of ordained positions, role of laity, the right of the bishop of Rome to intervene in another Church's affairs and be obeyed.
Pope St. Clement's Letter to the Corinthians is the first extant example of what? Roman intervention in another local church.
Like all great spiritual writers, Pope St. Clement stressed the importance of staying focused on ... the precious blood of Christ.
What was Pope St. Clement's view on free will? "The Master has given a place of repentance to all those who have the will to turn to Him." 7.5 He believed we have free will.
What instigated Pope St. Clement to write to the Corinthians? The congregation was trying to dispose of their authoritatively appointed clergy. He exhorts them to submit to their pastors in humility.
Along with many other Fathers, Pope St. Clement stresses which virtue to combat the pride that leads to division? Humility.
St. Ignatius was 3rd bishop of what city? Antioch.
Why is St. Ignatius considered an apostolic Father? He learned from St. John the Beloved.
What was the occasion of St. Ignatius' 7 letters? They were written during his journey to martyrdom in Rome.
Name the 7 letters of St. Ignatius. Letters to Ephesians, Magnesians, Trallians, Romans, Philedelphians, Smyrnaeans and Polycarp.
How was St. Ignatius martyred? He was torn apart by wild beasts in Rome.
Name any confirmation of St. Ignatius' authorship of these 7 letters. St. Ignatius' Letters are mentioned by Polycarp in his Letter to the Philippians, Irenaeus in Against Heresies, Eusebius in History, Origen and Jerome.
Discuss any dispute regarding Ignatius' authorship of these 7 letters. Today there is generally no dispute, but his mention of hierarchical holy orders and the obedience due to those offices caused much debate among the protestants of the 17th c., especially in England.
Does Ignatius engage in speculative theology? No, he is interested in protecting and maintaining the purity of the faith passed on by the Apostles, passing on the facts.
Name and explain a heresy addressed by Ignatius. Docetism is the belief that Jesus was not a man, did not truly incarnate, but only appeared to live, suffer and die as a human being.
Ignatius speaks of those who corrupt body or soul going to eternal damnation, not inheriting the Kingdom of God. What other teaching does this reflect? That of St. Paul: 1 Cor 6:9-10 "Do you not know that the unrighteous will not inherit the Kingdom of God?"
Pope St. Clement's Letter also addresses what aspects of Sacred Scripture? Its divine inspiration and inerrancy.
Does St. Ignatius argue for the threefold hierarchy of the Church? No, he speaks of the hierarchy as an established fact that people already respect and obey.
According to St. Ignatius must one obey the hierarchy? Yes, "He that is within the sanctuary is pure; but he that is outside the sanctuary is not pure. In other words, anyone who acts without the bishop and the presbytery and the deacons does not have a clean conscience.
How is St. Igantius' Letter to the Romans different from his first three letters? The first three letters address ecclesial and doctrinal issues. His Letter to the Romans begs them not to interfere with his martyrdom.
Do the Fathers refer to Scripture in their writings? Yes, regularly.
In his Letter to the Romans, what does St. Ignatius imply about the authority of the bishop of Rome? St. Ignatius implies the supremacy of Rome: "to the Church also which holds the presidency in the place of the country of the Romans."
What is the importance of St. Ignatius' opening address in his Letter to the Romans? It is the first non-papal confirmation of the supremacy of the Roman bishop.
When did St. Ignatius live? Generally thought to be born about AD 50 and to have died between AD 98 and 117. Some date his birth as early as AD 35.
Why was the authenticity of St. Ignatius' Letter to the Romans doubted? Protestants did not want to accept its confirmation of the authority of the bishop of Rome.
What are some of St. Ignatius' emphases? God/Christ/Trinity, Eucharistic language.
Does St. Ignatius confirm or deny the importance of the prophets and OT? Confirm.
St. Ignatius' Letter to the Smyrnaeans is one of the earliest statements to emphasize... the works of mercy.
Quote one of St. Ignatius' statements on the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist. "They abstain from the Eucharist and from prayer, because they do not confess that the Eucharist is the Flesh of our Savior Jesus Christ."
St. Ignatius was the first to use what popular term for the faith of Christians? Catholic - "Wherever the bishop appears, let the people be there; just as wherever Jesus Christ is, there is the Catholic Church."
St. Ignatius seems to use the term 'Catholic' to mean ... universal.
In addition to 'Catholic,'what other common term originated in Antioch? Christian.
What is St. Ignatius path from the laity to God? People - deacons - priests/presbyters - bishops - Apostles - Christ - God the Father
When did St. Polycarp of Smyrna live? AD 69/70 - 155/156
Is St. Polycarp an Apostolic Father? Tertullian, Eusebius and Irenaeus all say he heard St. John the Evangelist. Polycarp is have been appointed bishop of Smyrna by Apostles (Irenaeus) and specifically by St. John (some other patristic writings)
Name St. Polycarp's only extant writing. Letter to the Philippians.
What is the significance of the Martyrdom of Polycarp? It is the oldest extant, detailed and authentic record of an individual martyrdom.
How did Polycarp respond to the proconsul's offer of release? "Eighty-six years I have served Him, and He has never done me wrong. How, then, should I be able to blaspheme my King who has saved me?"
How does the Martyrdom of Polycarp distinguish between love of Jesus Christ and love of the martyrs? He notes that we worship Christ as the Son of God, while we love the martyrs as disciples and imitators of Jesus and examples we hope to follow.
What does the Martyrdom of Polycarp say about relics? St. Polycarp's bones were gathered as soon as possible and placed in a place of respect where the faithful would remember and celebrate his devotion to Christ and learn from his example.
When did St. Papias of Hierapolis live? His life span is unknown, only that he wrote about AD 130.
Explain how St. Papias is an Apostolic Father. St. Papias lived in a time when he could have known the Apostles. Irenaeus claims he was a hearer of John, but Eusebius says Papias himself only claimed to hear acquaintances of the Apostles.
Name St. Papias' known extant works. There are none. We have only fragments of his 5 books of Explanation of the Sayings of the Lord in Eusebius' History.
What is the significance of St. Papias' work? He emphasizes the truthfulness of the Bible despite the lack of concern for strict chronology, and that both words and deeds were recorded.
Do the Fathers agree on the inerrancy of Scripture. Yes, this is one of their most consistent teachings.
When did St. Justin Martyr live? AD 100-165. He is the first Father about whom there is almost complete unanimity on his dates. He is also the first to live entirely in the 2nd century.
How did St. Justin's audience differ from those of previous Fathers? St. Justin was the first Father of the Church addressing non-believers.
Into which category of Church Fathers does St. Justin fall? He is the first and most important apologist of the 2nd century.
Summarize St. Justin Martyr's Dialogue with Trypho. This is said to be an actual dialogue Justin had with a Jewish man. Justin gives the background leading to his conversion, explains the Christian view of the OT, justifies Christian adoration of Christ as God, and describes Christianity as the new Israel.
What group does St. Justin Martyr's Dialogue with Trypho engage? Jews.
Does St. Justin Martyr confirm or deny the importance of the prophets and the OT? He confirms, particularly showing how Jesus fulfilled the OT prophecies and is the final covenant.
Does Justin support the idea of Dual Covenant Theology? No, he firmly argues that the covenant in the blood of Jesus is the final and universal covenant for all mankind.
Name some examples of typology in the works of St. Justin Martyr. Mary as the new Eve, Passover as a type of Christ.
What are St. Irenaeus' dates? AD 130/140 - 200/202
Who is considered the founder of Christian theology due to his defense of the articles of faith? St. Irenaeus.
St. Irenaeus was 2nd bishop of what city? Lyons.
Name St. Irenaeus' work (and its full title.) Against Heresies (Detection and Overthrow of the Gnosis So-Called)
When was St. Irenaeus' Against Heresies written? AD 180-199.
Which of St. Justin Martyr's works were written to explain Christianity to pagans? The First and Second Apologies.
When was St. Justin's First Apology written? AD 148-155 (Wrote his book 150 years after Christ's birth.)
What are the main topics of St. Justin Martyr's First Apology? Relationship between Church and state, the superiority of Christianity to paganism, Catholic practices.
Who was one of the earliest Fathers to show the relationship between faith and reason? St. Justin Martyr
Which Father was also known as Philosopher due to his philosophical background and inclusion of philosophical concepts in his explanation of Christianity? St. Justin Martyr.
Which philosophical concept does St. Justin Martyr popularize in his explanation of Christianity? Logos.
According to St. Justin Martyr could a pagan have access to Logos? Yes, through our use of reason all mankind can arrive at the truth, which is the seed of the Logos.
According to St. Justin Martyr, what is the strongest proof of Christ's divinity? His fulfillment of ancient prophecies.
Explain 'motive of credibility.' Motives of credibility are external signs which support our faith.
What Catholic concept does St. Justin Martyr support in his discussion of baptism in the First Apology, 61? He speaks of the regenerative power and necessity of baptism: "They receive the washing with water for Christ said unless you be reborn you shall not enter heaven."
Which early term for baptism does Justin use to point to the intellectual dimension of the faith? Illumination.
Explain the basics of Gnosticism. Gnosticism is a belief in salvation through possession of secret knowledge. This seems a perennial heresy that always borrows from what is popular, assimilates other beliefs. Gnosticism also often incorporates the dualism of good/bad gods, spirit v. body
What heresy is St. Irenaeus refuting in Against Heresies? Gnosticism.
What is the division of the five books of Against Heresies? The first is detection, the remaining four are the overthrow of the heresy.
Explain a little of Irenaeus' view of tradition and oneness of the Church. He speaks of the unity of the far-flung Church, how she has the same teachings passed on from one generation to the next as if "with one mouth." He also mentions the authority of Tradition.
Which historic beliefs regarding the Gospels does Irenaeus confirm? St. Irenaeus confirms the traditional authorship of the Gospels by Matthew, Mark, Luke and John, not by their communities, and the importance of all four Gospels to the full message of Christ.
In answering those who deny the salvation of the body, St. Irenaeus confirms what Catholic doctrine? The Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist.
When was the Muratorian Fragment composed? Between AD 155 and 200
Who wrote the Muratorian Fragment? It has been attributed to a variety of authors but there is not sufficient support for any of them.
What is the significance of the Muratorian Fragment? It is the earliest extant listing of the canonical books of the NT.
When did Tertullian live? AD 155/160 - 240/250
Why is Tertullian considered a Father of the Church? Despite his later heresy, Tertullian is respected for his great contributions to orthodox Catholic theology in a time before many beliefs were clearly defined.
Which Father, equally fluent in both Greek and Latin, was the first to write in Latin? Tertullian
Describe some aspects of Montanism. Belief in continuing and superceding prophecy, disapproval of 2nd marriages and flight from persecution, encouragement of virginity and martyrdom.
This Father was highly respected in his own life time: "Can anyone be more learned, more acute of mind, than ________?" ~Jerome Tertullian
This Father coined many Latin words to describe Christian concepts. Tertullian
Tertullian's Apology is directed to whom? Roman officials, to convince them of the Truth of Christianity.
This work was held in such high esteem, it was one of the first to be translated from Latin to Greek at a time when that was seldom done. Tertullian's Apology
This later heretical Father was well-educated in rhetoric, literature and law and put his knowledge to use defending the Catholic faith after his conversion. Tertullian
Tertullian claims in Apology that Christians are enemies not of the human race but of ______. human error
Tertullian's Montanist leanings come out in this classic phrase regarding the growth of the Church. The blood of martyrs is the seed of Christians.
When did Origen live? 184/5 - 253/4
This Father was born to Christian parents near Alexandria, Egypt, and eventually succeeded St. Clement of Alexandria as headmaster at the Catechetical School of Alexandria. Origen
Jerome claims this Father wrote 2000 works, St. Epithanius says 6000; Eusebius' list has not survived. Who is this Father whom some claim to be the greatest scholar of antiquity, though he was never recognized as a saint due to some heretical writing? Origen
Why did Origen's bishop object to his ordination? He was ordained by bishops outside his own diocese.
Origen's Fundamental Doctrines, four books written from 220-230, are often considered the first ___________. Manual of dogmatic theology
Describe Origen's defense of his theology. He did not have to defend his theology as it only came under attack after his death.
Why is Origen counted among the Fathers despite his heresy? He was well-respected for all his contributions to Catholic theology and it is recognized that some of the presumed heresy could be due to a lack of precise terms to describe the concepts.
Name two well-known defenders of Origen. Eusebius and Athanasius
Comment on the heretical aspect of Origen's writings from today's knowledge. It is difficult to discern his actual writing as supporters copied his work and cleaned up issues, whereas his attackers copied his work to show every flaw.
Origen strongly supports apostolic and ecclesiastic tradition, apostolic succession and the Church's authority in matters of faith and morals in which 4 book work? Fundamental Doctrines
"That alone is to be believed as the truth which is in no way at variance with ecclesiastical and apostolic tradition." This strong statement of the Church's authority through apostolic tradition and succession comes from whom and what work? Origen, Fundamental Doctrines
According to Origen can our free will be influenced by anything outside ourselves? Yes, "every rational soul...has a struggle against the devil and his angels and opposing powers, in which they strive to burden it with sins..."
Origen's support of free will counters what popular modern theory? Theory of determinism, that we are at the mercy of forces outside the control of our own will.
What does Origen teach about Scriptural inspiration and meaning? Scripture was written through the Spirit of God and contains both the apparent and a spiritual meaning.
What does Origen teach about the Gospels? He confirms traditional authorship, audience and order of composition of the four, and only four, Gospels. Also confirms view that they were composed by their authors, not communities established by them.
This early Father became well-known for his senses of Scripture. Origen
Describe the main tenets of Origenism, rightly or wrongly attributed to Origen. Excessive allegorism of Scripture, subordination of divine persons and theory of successive trials with final restoration of all.
Where were the two main catechetical schools of the early centuries located? Alexandria, Egypt, and Antioch, Syria
Did the catechetical schools develop out of apologetic writings or the development of dogmatic theology? Systematic/dogmatic theology
How did the catechetical school at Alexandria differ from our modern concept of a school? Generally the headmaster was the only lecturer and taught from his home.
Why would a catechetical school develop at Alexandria? It was a center of learning and culture, famous for its library, and later for a large and active Christian community.
Give the dates for the School at Alexandria. There are no specific dates of its founding or demise. Jerome associates St. Mark with its founding. Became more active in the 3rd and 4th centuries.
Name two Fathers who led the Catechetical School at Alexandria. Origen and St. Clement of Alexandria
Did education at the School of Alexandria include non-theological topics? Why or why not? Profane topics were included, always followed by discussions of morals and philosophy pertinent to them so that students would not go wrong.
What is the legacy of the Catechetical School of Alexandria? Biblical hermeneutics, the development of the concept of multiple layers of meaning within the Scriptures.
Did the School at Alexandria originate the idea of looking beyond the literal meaning of scripture? No, it can be seen in both the Old and New Testaments.
Describe the senses of Scripture recognized by the Catholic Church today. Literal and 3 spiritual senses - allegorical (relating to Christ), moral (relating to our behavior) and anagogical (relating to the eternal significance)
What is the Catechetical School of Antioch known for? Its emphasis on the literal, historical-grammatical, sense of Scripture.
When did the Catechetical School of Antioch begin? in the latter half of the 3rd century.
Why did the School of Antioch emphasize the literal sense of Scripture? partly in reaction to the excessive spiritualization of the School of Alexandria
Why is the literal sense important? The literal sense is the basis of any understanding of Scripture; it attends to the historical context of the Bible and recognizes the meaning of words. It is common sense!
Is it best to approach Scripture through the literal sense, spiritual or both? Both
When did St.Cyprian of Carthage live? 200/210 - 258
The first Christian biography is often considered to be that of whom? St. Cyprian of Carthage
Who were the lapsi? Those who, during the Decian persecution, apostatized, bought libelli to avoid persecution, or sacrificed to the Roman gods.
How did St. Cyprian of Carthage respond to the problem of lapsi? As a rigorist he refused their readmittance to the Church, other than in danger of imminent death, until the full Church could determine an appropriate process.
Name at least two of St. Cyprian of Carthage's works. To Donatus, The Lapsed, The Unity of the Catholic Church, The Lord's Prayer
What does St. Cyprian of Carthage's The Lapsed address? This is written to those who apostatized during the Decian persecution of the mid 3rd century, proposing heavy penance and reconciliation with the Church at the hour of death.
What does St. Cyprian of Carthage's The Unity of the Church address? the schism that resulted from differing views on the proper reconciliation of the lapsi
What new issue confronted the Church in the wake of the great apostasy of the Decian persecution? Rebaptism, a "novelty" of the African Church according to Pope St. Stephen I
Explain why rebaptism became an issue in Africa. Rigorists considered any lapsi to be a heretic until a deathbed reconciliation. The African Church did not recognize baptism by heretics to be valid. Thus, contrary to the universal Church, they rebaptized anyone who had been baptized by a lapsi.
Created by: ritacate



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