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The Musculoskeletal System

osseous Bony; composed of bone; pertaining to bone.
osteoblast A cell associated with the production of bone.
osteoclast A large cell associated with the absorption and removal of bone.
osteocyte A mature osteoblast.
collagen A fibrous insoluble protein found in the white fibers of connective tissue including bone, ligaments, and tendons. When boiled, it becomes gelatin.
periosteum The specialized connective tissue covering all the bones of the body.
endosteum The connective tissue membrane lining the medullary cavity of bone.
medullary Pertaining to bone marrow or the inner portion of an organ.
diaphysis The portion of a long bone between its ends; the shafts of a bone.
epiphysis The end of a long bone that is usually wider than the shaft. Contains a center for growth in length.
ossification The formation of bone; the normal process of hardening of bone by calcification.
calcification Deposit of calcium salts within bony tissues.
axis A straight line (imaginery) passing through the center about which a body or part may rotate.
axial Pertaining to or forming an axis.
appendidicular Pertaining to an appendage such as a limb or extremity.
skeleton The bony framework of the body consisting of 206 bones.
skeletal Pertaining to the skeleton.
cranium The skull; that portion of the skull which encloses the brain.
frontal Pertaining to the forehead or forehead bone.
parietal Pertaining to the two bones that form most of the roof and upper sides of the cranium.
temporal Pertaining to the temple or central sides of the cranium; of the two bones of the cranium located above and around each ear.
occipital Pertaining to the back and most of the lower base of the skull.
sphenold Wedge-shaped; pertaining to the bat-shaped bone that extends behind the eyes, forming the anterior base of the cranium and part of each orbit.
ethmoid Sieve-like, pertaining to the delicate bone that forms much of the internal nasal structure and part of each orbit.
suture One of the jagged seams that unite the adjoining bones of the skull.
fontanel A space located at the junction of the sutures in the skull of the infant. The fontanels are often called "soft spots."
sinus One of the eight air-filled cavities in the skull that communicate with the nasal cavity.
orbital Pertaining to the orbit or eye socket.
zygoma The cheekbone. The two zygomae form the bony arch that extends along the front and side of the skull below the orbits.
maxilla One of the pair of bones forming the upper jaw.
maxillary Pertaining to the upper jaw bone.
mandible The lower jaw bone; horseshoe-shaped.
mandibular Pertaining to the lower jaw bone.
nasal Pertaining to the nose or one of the two bones that form the bridge of the nose.
vertebra A backbone; any one of the bones of the spinal column.
intervertebral Situatued between two adjacent verterbrae.
cervical Pertaining to the neck; the seven cervical vertebrae are designated.
thoracic Pertaining to the chest; the 12 thoracic vertebrae are designated.
sacrum The large triangular bone near the lower end of the spinal column to which hip bones are attached. Composed of five fused vertebrae.
coccyx The tail bone or small bone at the end of the spinal column. Formed by the fusion or several rudimentary vertebrae.
coccygeal Pertaining to the coccyx or tail bone.
costa A rib.
intercostal Between the ribs; situated between the ribs.
sternum The breastbone; a long flat bone shaped somewhat like a dagger and joined to the cartilages of most of the ribs anteriorly.
manubrium The upper portion of the sternum.
xiphoid process The lower end of the sternum.
pelvis The large basin or cup-shaped ring of bone at the base of the spinal column. Sometimes referred to as the pelvic girdle. Consists of 2 bones, each of which is composed of 3 fused bones: the pubis, ischium and ilium.
pelvic Pertaining to the pelvis or pelvic bone.
ilium The superiormost (uppermost) bone of each pelvic bone. The widest of the 3 fused bones of the hip bone.
ischium The inferoposterior bone of each of the pelvic or hip bones.
pubis The inferoposterior bone of each of the hipbones (pubic bones).
symphysis pubis The cartilaginous joint formed by the union of the 2 pubic bones at the midline.
clavicle The collar bone or clavicula; a curved bone that joins with the sternum medially and the acromion process of the scapula.
clavicular Pertaining to the collar bone.
scapula The shoulder blade; a large flat triangular bone.
glenoid Socket-like; resembling a socket.
acromion The lateral extension of the projecting spine of the scapula. Projects over the shoulder joint forming the highest point of the shoulder.
humerus The upper arm bone. The head of the proximal end fits into the glenoid cavity. The distal end articulates with the bones of the forearm.
radius The shorter and thicker of the two forearm bones located on the side of the thumb.
ulna The forearm bone on the side of the little finger that extends from the wrist to the elbow. The proximal end forms the olecranon process or elbow.
carpus The eight bones of the wrist; the wrist.
metacarpus The five bones of the hand between the wrist and fingers.
phalanx Any bone of a finger or toe, each finger or toe having three such bones are the proximal, middle, and distal bones.
acetabulum The hip socket; the cup-shaped cavity on the outer aspect of the hip bone.
os innominatum The innomative (having no name) bone. It forms the lateral half of the pelvis.
os coxae The hip bone or pelvic bone.
femur The thigh bone; the longest, strongest bone in the human body.
patella The knee-cap; a small flat triangular bone located in front of the knee joint within the inserting tendon of the quadriceps femoris muscle.
tibia The shin bone; the medial, larger bone of the lower leg.
fibula The smaller lateral bone of the lower leg. One of the longest and thinnest bones of the body.
tarsus The ankle; the 7 bones of the ankle including the heel bone.
calcaneus The heel bone; the irregular bone at the back of the tarsus. Also called the calcaneum and os calcis.
metatarsus The part of the foot between the tarsus and the toes; the 5 long bones that extend from the tarsus tot the toes; the 5 long bones that extend from the tarsus to the toes. Also called the metatarsals and metatarsal bones.
phalangeal Pertaining to the phalanx or the phalanges.
condyle A rounded knobby projection at the end of a bone that fits into a joint.
malleolus The rounded bony prominence or projection on either side of the ankle joint. The medial malleolus is located at the distal end of the tibia; the lateral malleolus at the distal end of the fibula.
fossa A furrow or depression in a bone or other structure.
olecranon The large process of the ulna forming the bony preminence of the elbow.
foramen A natural opening, especially in a bone, that may pass into or through the bone.
meatus A tube-shaped passage.
mastoid Formed like a breast or nipple; pertaining to the mastoid process of the temporal bone (projection behind the ear).
process A noticable projection of the bone.
articulation A joint; the junction of two or more bones.
ligament A band of strong fibrous connective tissue serving to hold the articular ends of bones together or to hold organs in place.
tendon A strong cord of fibrous connective tissue serving to attach muscles to bones.
bursa A small closed sac containing synovial fluid, usually found within joint areas (between moving parts) subject to friction.
meniscus A crescent-shaped fibrocartilage in the knee joint. Each knee has a medial and a lateral meniscus which act as cushions between the ends of the bones in the knee joint.
retinaculum Tight transverse fibrous bands or ligaments that serve to bind down the tendons close to the bones as they pass over a joint.
Created by: karene