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Ch. 14 Vocab

TermDefinition
Lorenzo de' Medici Lorenzo de' Medici was an Italian statesman and de facto ruler of the Florentine Republic during the Italian Renaissance
Francesco Petrarch Francesco Petrarca, commonly anglicized as Petrarch, was an Italian scholar and poet in Renaissance Italy, and one of the earliest humanists. Petrarch's rediscovery of Cicero's letters is often credited for initiating the 14th-century Renaissance.
Leonardo da Vinci Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci was an Italian Renaissance polymath: painter, sculptor, architect, musician, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist, and writer.
Michelangelo Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni, commonly known as Michelangelo, was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect, poet, and engineer of the High Renaissance who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art.
Raphael Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino, better known simply as Raphael, was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance.
Baldassare Castiglione Baldassare Castiglione, count of Casatico, was an Italian courtier, diplomat, soldier and a prominent Renaissance author.
Niccolo Machiavelli Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli was an Italian historian, politician, diplomat, philosopher, humanist, and writer based in Florence during the Renaissance.
Patroon a person given land and granted certain manorial privileges under the former Dutch governments of New York and New Jersey.
Humanities the human race; human beings collectively.
Perspective the art of drawing solid objects on a two-dimensional surface so as to give the right impression of their height, width, depth, and position in relation to each other when viewed from a particular point.
Albrecht Durer Albrecht Dürer was a German painter, engraver, printmaker, mathematician, and theorist from Nuremberg
Jan Van Eyck Jan van Eyck was a Flemish painter active in Bruges and is generally considered one of the most significant Northern European painters of the 15th century. The few surviving records indicate that he was born around 1390, most likely in Maaseik.
Francois Rabelais François Rabelais was a major French Renaissance writer, doctor, Renaissance humanist, monk and Greek scholar. He has historically been regarded as a writer of fantasy, satire, the grotesque, bawdy jokes and songs.
William Shakespeare William Shakespeare was an English poet and playwright, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist. He is often called England's national poet and the "Bard of Avon".
Miguel de Cervantes Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra was a Spanish novelist, poet, and playwright. His magnum opus, Don Quixote, considered to be the first modern European novel, is a classic of Western literature
Johann Guatenberg Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg was a German blacksmith, goldsmith, printer, and publisher who introduced printing to Europe.
Engraving a print made from an engraved plate, block, or other surface.
Vernacular the language or dialect spoken by the ordinary people in a particular country or region.
Utopian modeled on or aiming for a state in which everything is perfect; idealistic.
Henry VIII Henry VIII was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. He was Lord, and later assumed the Kingship, of Ireland, as well as continuing the nominal claim by the English monarchs to the Kingdom of France.
Elizabeth I Elizabeth I was queen regnant of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. Sometimes called "The Virgin Queen", "Gloriana" or "Good Queen Bess", Elizabeth was the fifth and last monarch of the Tudor dynasty
Council of Trent a council of the Roman Catholic Church convened in Trento in three sessions between 1545 and 1563 to examine and condemn the teachings of Martin Luther and other Protestant reformers
Inquisition a period of prolonged and intensive questioning or investigation.
Jesuits a member of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic order of priests founded by St. Ignatius Loyola, St. Francis Xavier, and others in 1534
Teresa of Avila Teresa of Ávila, also called Saint Teresa of Jesus, baptized as Teresa Sánchez de Cepeda y Ahumada, was a prominent Spanish mystic, Roman Catholic saint
Annul declare invalid (an official agreement, decision, or result).
Canonize (in the Roman Catholic Church) officially declare (a dead person) to be a saint.
compromise an agreement or a settlement of a dispute that is reached by each side making concessions.
Scapegoat In modern usage a scapegoat is an individual, group, or country singled out for unmerited negative treatment or blame. A whipping boy, "fall guy" or "patsy" is a form of scapegoat
Ghetto put in or restrict to an isolated or segregated area or group.
Protestant Reformation The Protestant Reformation was the schism within Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther, John Calvin, and other early Protestants
Martin Luther Martin Luther OSA was a German monk, former Catholic priest, professor of theology and seminal figure of a reform movement in 16th century Christianity, subsequently known as the Protestant Reformation.
Peace of Augsburg The Peace of Augsburg, also called the Augsburg Settlement, was a treaty between Charles V and the forces of the Schmalkaldic League
John Calvin John Calvin was an influential French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation. He was a principal figure in the development of the system of Christian theology later called Calvinism.
Huguenot The Huguenots (/ˈhjuːɡənɒt/ or /huːɡəˈnoʊ/; French: [yɡno], [yɡəno]) were members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France
John Knox John Knox was a Scottish clergyman and a leader of the Protestant Reformation who is considered the founder of the Presbyterian denomination in Scotland.
Indulgence the action or fact of indulging.
Recant say that one no longer holds an opinion or belief, esp. one considered heretical.
Predestination (as a doctrine in Christian theology) the divine foreordaining of all that will happen, esp. with regard to the salvation of some and not others. It has been particularly associated with the teachings of St. Augustine of Hippo and of Calvin.
Theocracy a system of government in which priests rule in the name of God or a god.
Nicolaus Copernicus Nicolaus Copernicus was a Renaissance mathematician and astronomer who formulated a heliocentric model of the universe which placed the Sun, rather than the Earth, at the center.
Johannes Kepler Johannes Kepler was a German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer. A key figure in the 17th century scientific revolution, he is best known for his laws of planetary motion
Galileo Galilei Galileo Galilei, often known mononymously as Galileo, was an Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major role in the scientific revolution.
Francis Bacon Sir Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St. Alban, Kt., QC was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, essayist, and author. He served both as Attorney General and Lord Chancellor of England.
Renè Descares René Descartes was a French philosopher, mathematician, and writer who spent most of his life in the Dutch Republic
Isaac Newton Sir Isaac Newton PRS MP was an English physicist and mathematician who is widely regarded as one of the most influential scientists of all time and as a key figure in the scientific revolution.
Robert Boyle Robert Boyle, FRS, was a 17th-century natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, and inventor. Born in Lismore County Waterford, Ireland, he was also noted for his writings in theology
Heliocentric having or representing the sun as the center, as in the accepted astronomical model of the solar system.
Hypothesis a supposition or proposed explanation made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for further investigation.
Scientific method a method of procedure that has characterized natural science since the 17th century, consisting in systematic observation, measurement, and experiment, and the formulation, testing, and modification of hypotheses.
Gravity the force that attracts a body toward the center of the earth, or toward any other physical body having mass. For most purposes Newton's laws of gravity apply, with minor modifications to take the general theory of relativity into account.
Humanism an outlook or system of thought attaching prime importance to human rather than divine or supernatural matters.
Created by: corbinbogart