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Chapter 14

Vocabulary

TermDefinition
Lorenzo de' Medici Grandson of Cosimo's; Known as the "Magnificent"; Reresented the Renaissance ideal; He was also a clever politician and held Florence together in the late 1400's during difficult times; He was also a generous patron of the arts.
Francesco Petrarch A florentine who lived in the 1300's; Was an early Renaissance humanist; He found and assembled a library of Greek and Roman manuscripts in monasteries and churches; He also wrote literature of his own; Wrote Sonnets to Laura.
Leonardo da Vinci Born in 1452; Made sketches of nature and of models in his studio; Even dissected corpses to learn how bones and muscles work; He painted Mona Lisa and the Last Supper; Also interested in botany, anatomy, optics, music, architecture, and engineering.
Michealangelo Was a many-sided genius sculptor, engineer, painter, architect, and poet; Shaped marble into masterpieces like the pieta; Made the statue of David; Was also a talented architect; Most famous design was for the dome of St. Peter's Cathedral in Rome
Raphael Studied the works of Leonardo and Michelangelo; Paintings blend Christian and classical styles; Problably best known for his tender portrayals of the madonna.
Baldassare Castiglione Wrote "The Book of the Courtier"; Ideal courtier was a well-educated, well-mannered aristocrat who mastered many fields from poetry to music to sports.
Niccolo Machiavelli Wrote a differendt kind of handbook; Had served Florence as a diplomat and had observed kings and princes in forein courts; He also studied ancient Roman history; Wrote the "Prince";
Patron Financial supporter
Hummanism An intellectual movement
Hummanities The subjects taught in ancient Greek and Roman schools.
Perspective Artistic technique used to give drawings and paintings a three-dimensional effect
Albrecht Durer Traveled to Italy in 1494 to study the techniques of the Italian masters; Employed these methods in paintings and, especially , in engravings; Helped to spread Italian Renaissance ideas in his homeland.
Jan van Eyck Developed oil paint;
Francois Rabelais Had a varied career as a monk, physician, Greek scholar, and author.
William Shakespeare Was an Enlglish poet and playwright;Wrote 37 plays in 1590 and 1613 that are still performed today; His love of words enriched the English language; Wrote the "Twelfth Night", Richard III, Romeo and Juliet,
Miguel de Cervantes An entertaining tale that mocks romantic notions of medieval chivalry
Johann Gutenberg Printed the first complete edition edition of the Bible using the first printing press and printing inks in the West;
Engraving Art form in which an artist etches a design on a metal plate with acid and then uses the plate to make multiple prints
Vernacular Everyday language of ordinary people.
Utopian Ideal society
Protestant Reformation
Martin Luther Founder of the Reformation; Rebeled against the sale of indulgences; Posted 95 theses on the door of the German church; Was set of by Johann Tetzel who tried to sell indulgences for money to rebuild a cathedral in Rome.
Peace of Augsburg Signed in 1555; Allowed each prince to decide which religion would be followed in his lands;
John Calvin The most important reformer to follow Martin Luther; Had a logical, razor-sharp mind; His ideas had a profound effect on the direction of the Reformation; Preaches presidentatoin that says god had chosen those who would be saved; Believed in
Huguenot French Calvinists that wars raged between in France.
John Knox A Calvinist preacher that led a religious rebellion; Under Knox Scottish Protestants overthrew their Catholic queen.
Indulgence A lessening of the time a soul would have to spend in purgatory.
Recant Give up views.
Predestination the idea that God had long ago determined who would gain salvation.
theocracy Government run by church leaders.
Henry VIII Stood firmly against the Protestant revolt; Awarded the title "Defender of the Faith" by the Pope for a pamphlet that he wrote denouncing Luther; Had one surviving child, Mary Tudor, with his spanish wife, Catherine of Aragon; Felt that England's stabilit
Elizabeth I Throne was passed to her after Mary died in 1558; She had survived court intrigues ; Had to determine the future of the Church of England; Slowly enforced a series of reforms that later were called the Elizabethan settlement
Council of Trent Called by the Pope in 1545 to establish the direction that reform should take; Met off and on for almost 20 years; Reaffirmed traditional Catholic views which Protestants had challenged; Declared that salvation comes through faith and good works; Took ste
Inquisition Strengthened by Pope Paul to deal with the Protestant threat more directly; Was a Church court set up during the Middle ages; Used secret testimony, torture, and execution to root out heresy; Prepared the Index of Forbidden Books; Included books by Luther
Jesuits A new religioius order/ the Society of Jesus recognized by the pope; Founded by Ignatius of Loyola; Was determined to combat heresy and spread the Catholic faith;Embarked on a crusade to defend and spread the Catholic faith throughout the world;
Teresa of Avila Symbolized the renewal of fellings of intense faith; Born into a wealthy spanish family; Entered a convent in her youth; Set up own order of nuns; Asked to reorganize and reform convents and monasteries throughout spain; Widely honored for her work;
Annul Cancel
Canonize Recognized as a saint
Compromise Acceptable middle ground between Protestant and Catholic practices.
Scapegoat
Ghetto Separate part of city which Jews where forced to live.
Nicolaus Copernicus Published "On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres."; Proposed a heliocentric model of the universe; Said the sun stood at the center of the universe;
Johannes Kepler Tycho Brahe's assistant; German astronomer and matematician; used Brahe's data to calculate the orbits of the planets revolving around the sun; supported Copernicus's heliocentric view; Showed that each planet did not move in a perfect circle but in an ov
Galileo Galilei Assembled an astronomitical telescope; Observed the four moons of Jupiter moving slowly around that planet; Tried before the Inquisition; threatened with death unless he withdrew his hersies; Agreed to state publicl that Earth stood motionless at the cen
Francis Bacon
Rene Descartes
Isaac Newton Devoured the works of the leading scientists of his day; Formed a brilliant theory to explain why the planets moved as they did; Saw an apple fall from a tree and wondered whether the force that pulled the apple to the Earthmight not also control the move
Robert Boyle Distinguished between individual elems and chemical compounds; Also explained the effect of temp. and pressure on gases; Opened the way to modern chemical analysis of the composition of matter.
Heliocentric Sun-centered
Hypothesis Possible explanation
Scientific Method Step-by-step process of discovery.
Gravity Force that keeps the planets in their aorbits around the sun.
Created by: Ashley Luallen